The Army Corps

The Army Corps

Before the 18th century national armies were small enough to be organised in regiments and brigades. As armies grew larger, the French Army introduced the idea of divisions. In 1800 the French began grouping divisions into corps, each one commanded by a general. This method of organisation was adopted by the Duke of Wellington during the latter stages of the Napoleonic Wars.

Military Intelligence Corps (United States Army)

The Military Intelligence Corps is the intelligence branch of the United States Army. The primary mission of military intelligence in the United States Army is to provide timely, relevant, accurate, and synchronized intelligence and electronic warfare support to tactical, operational and strategic-level commanders. The Army's intelligence components produce intelligence both for Army use and for sharing across the national intelligence community. [1]


Operational formation Edit

In many armies, a corps is a battlefield formation composed of two or more divisions, and typically commanded by a lieutenant general. During World War I and World War II, due to the large scale of combat, multiple corps were combined into armies which then formed into army groups. In Western armies with numbered corps, the number is often indicated in Roman numerals (e.g., VII Corps).

Australia Edit

The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was raised in 1914, consisting of Australian and New Zealand troops, who went on to fight at Gallipoli in 1915. In early 1916, the original corps was reorganised and two corps were raised: I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps. [1] In the later stages of World War I, the five infantry divisions of the First Australian Imperial Force (AIF)—consisting entirely of personnel who had volunteered for service overseas—were united as the Australian Corps, on the Western Front, under Lieutenant General Sir John Monash. [2]

During World War II, the Australian I Corps was formed to co-ordinate three Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) units: the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions, as well as other Allied units on some occasions, in the North African campaign and Greek campaign. Following the commencement of the Pacific War, there was a phased withdrawal of I Corps to Australia, and the transfer of its headquarters to the Brisbane area, to control Allied army units in Queensland and northern New South Wales (NSW). II Corps was also formed, with Militia units, to defend south-eastern Australia, and III Corps controlled land forces in Western Australia. Sub-corps formations controlled Allied land forces in the remainder of Australia. I Corps headquarters was later assigned control of the New Guinea campaign. In early 1945, when I Corps was assigned the task of re-taking Borneo, II Corps took over in New Guinea.

Canada Edit

Canada first fielded a corps-sized formation in the First World War the Canadian Corps was unique in that its composition did not change from inception to the war's end, in contrast to British corps in France and Flanders. The Canadian Corps consisted of four Canadian divisions. After the Armistice, the peacetime Canadian militia was nominally organized into corps and divisions but no full-time formations larger than a battalion were ever trained or exercised. Early in the Second World War, Canada's contribution to the British-French forces fighting the Germans was limited to a single division. After the fall of France in June 1940, a second division moved to England, coming under command of a Canadian corps headquarters. This corps was renamed I Canadian Corps as a second corps headquarters was established in the UK, with the eventual formation of five Canadian divisions in England. I Canadian Corps eventually fought in Italy, II Canadian Corps in NW Europe, and the two were reunited in early 1945. After the formations were disbanded after VE Day, Canada has never subsequently organized a Corps headquarters.

Royal Canadian Army Cadets: A Corps size in the RCAC is different everywhere, depending on the size, the Commanding Officer can be a Captain or Major.

China Edit

The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) Corps (軍團) was a type of military organization used by the Chinese Republic, and usually exercised command over two to three NRA Divisions and often a number of Independent Brigades or Regiments and supporting units. The Chinese Republic had 133 Corps during the Second Sino-Japanese War. After losses in the early part of the war, under the 1938 reforms, the remaining scarce artillery and the other support formations were withdrawn from the Division and was held at Corps, or Army level or higher. The Corps became the basic tactical unit of the NRA having strength nearly equivalent to an allied Division.

The modern People's Liberation Army Group Army (集团军) is the closest equivalent of a Corps. After the military reforms of the early 2010s, a typical PLA Group Army consists of six infantry and armored brigades, plus additional artillery, air defense and army aviation assets. Each formation contains approximately 30,000 combat troops and several thousands more supporting personnel.

France Edit

The French Army under Napoleon used corps-sized formations (French: Corps d'Armée) as the first formal combined-arms groupings of divisions with reasonably stable manning and equipment establishments. Napoleon first used the Corps d'armée in 1805. The use of the Corps d'armée was a military innovation that provided Napoleon with a significant battlefield advantage in the early phases of the Napoleonic Wars. The Corps was designed to be an independent military group containing cavalry, artillery and infantry, and capable of defending against a numerically superior foe. This allowed Napoleon to mass the bulk of his forces to effect a penetration into a weak section of enemy lines without risking his own communications or flank. This innovation stimulated other European powers to adopt similar military structures. The Corps has remained an echelon of French Army organization to the modern day.

Germany Edit

As fixed military formation already in peace-time it was used almost in all European armies after Battle of Ulm in 1805. In Prussia it was introduced by Order of His Majesty (de: Allerhöchste Kabinetts-Order) from November 5, 1816, in order to strengthen the readiness to war.

India Edit

The Indian Army has 14 Corps, each commanded by a General Officer Commanding (GOC), known as the corps commander, who holds the rank of Lieutenant General. Each corps is composed of three or four divisions. There are three types of corps in the Indian Army: Strike, Holding and Mixed. The Corps HQ is the highest field formation in the army.

Pakistan Edit

The paramilitary forces of Pakistan's two main western provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are the Frontier Corps (FC) founded in 1907 during British Rule as at least three various organizations before being combined together. They are charged with guarding the country's western borders as well as providing internal security including guarding important sites and participating in law enforcement activities. They are divided into two sub-organizations: FC Pakhtunkhwa and FC Balochistan.

Poland (1938–1939) Edit

The Polish Armed Forces used Independent Operational Group's in the place of the Corps before and during World War II. An example would be Independent Operational Group Polesie. The groups, as the name indicates, were more flexible and showed greater capacity to absorb and integrate elements of broken units over a period of just a couple days and keep cohesion during the September Campaign than more traditional army units such as divisions, regiments, or even brigades.

United Kingdom Edit

Wellington formed a "corps d'armee" in 1815 for commanding his mixed allied force of four divisions against Napoleon.

When the British Army was expanded from an expeditionary force in the First World War, corps were created to manage the large numbers of divisions. The British corps in World War I included 23 infantry corps and a few mounted corps. The word was adopted for other special formations such as the Officers Training Corps. Military training of teenage boys is undertaken at secondary schools through the Combined Cadet Force, in which participation was compulsory at some schools in the 1950s. Schoolboy jargon called the CCF simply "Corps."

The British Army still has a corps headquarters for operational control of forces. I Corps of the British Army of the Rhine was redesignated the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps in 1994. It is no longer a purely British formation, although the UK is the 'framework nation' and provides most of the staff for the headquarters. A purely national Corps headquarters could be quickly reconstituted if necessary.

It took command of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan on 4 May 2006. Previously, it was deployed as the headquarters commanding land forces during the Kosovo War in 1999 and also saw service in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commanding the initial stages of the IFOR deployment prior to that in 1996. Otherwise, the only time a British corps headquarters has been operationally deployed since 1945 was II Corps during the Suez Crisis.

United States Edit

The structure of a field corps in the United States Army is not permanent many of the units that it commands are allocated to it as needed on an ad hoc basis. On the battlefield, the corps is the highest level of the forces that is concerned with actual combat and operational deployment. Higher levels of command are concerned with administration rather than operations, at least under current doctrine. The corps provides operational direction for the forces under its command.

As of 2014, the active field corps in the U.S. Army are I Corps ("eye core"), III Corps and XVIII Airborne Corps their lineages derive from three of the corps formed during World War I (I and III Corps) and World War II (XVIII Airborne Corps). On 12 February 2020, it was announced that the Army was reactivating V Corps to bolster the presence of U.S. forces in Europe.

American Civil War Edit

The first field corps in the United States Army were legalized during the American Civil War by an Act of Congress on July 17, 1862, but Major General George B. McClellan had designated six corps organizations within his Army of the Potomac that spring. Previously, groupings of divisions were known by other names, such as "wings" and "grand divisions". The term "army corps" was often used at this time. These organizations were much smaller than their modern counterparts: they were usually commanded by a major general, were composed of two to six divisions (although predominantly three), and typically included from 10,000 to 15,000 men. Although designated with numbers that are sometimes the same as those found in the modern U.S. Army, there is no direct lineage between the 43 Union field corps of the Civil War and those with similar names in the modern era, due to Congressional legislation caused by the outcry from veterans of the Grand Army of the Republic during the Spanish–American War. [ citation needed ]

In the Confederate States Army, field corps were authorized in November 1862. They were commanded by lieutenant generals, and were usually larger than their Union Army counterparts because their divisions contained more brigades, each of which could contain more regiments. All of the Confederate corps at the Battle of Gettysburg, for instance, exceeded 20,000 men. However, for both armies, unit sizes varied dramatically with attrition throughout the war. In Civil War usages, by both sides, it was common to write out the number, thus "Twenty-first Army Corps", a practice that is usually ignored in modern histories of the war.

Spanish–American War Edit

Although the U.S. Army in the years following the Civil War lacked standing organization at the corps and division levels, it moved swiftly to adopt these during the mobilization for the Spanish–American War in the spring of 1898. On May 7, General Order 36 called for the establishment of seven "army corps" (repeating the nomenclature of the Civil War) an eighth was authorized later that month. [3] Two of these saw action as a unit: the Fifth in Cuba and the Eighth in the Philippines elements of the First, Fourth, and Seventh made up the invasion force for Puerto Rico (the Second, Third, and Seventh provided replacements and occupation troops in Cuba, while the Sixth was never organized). The corps headquarters were disbanded during the months following the signing of the peace treaty (with the exception of the Eighth Army Corps, which remained active until 1900 due to the eruption of the Philippine–American War), and like the corps of the Civil War, their lineage ends at that point.

World Wars I & II Edit

During World War I, the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) adopted the common European usage of designating field corps by Roman numerals. Several "corps areas" were designated under the authority of the National Defense Act of 1920, but played little role until the Army's buildup for World War II. While some of the lower numbered Corps were used for various exercises the inter-war years corps serve mostly as a pool of units. [4] During that war, the Marine Corps organized corps headquarters for the first time, the I Marine (later III Amphibious Corps) and V Amphibious Corps. The Army would ultimately designate 25 field corps (I–XVI, XVIII–XXIV, XXXVI, and I Armored Corps) during World War II.

Cold War and 21st Century Edit

After the Korean War, the Army and Marines would diverge in their approach to the concept of the field corps. The Army, continued to group its divisions into traditional corps organizations in the Continental United States (CONUS), West Germany (V Corps & VII Corps), and South Korea (I Corps). However, during the Vietnam War, the Army designated its corps-level headquarters in South Vietnam as I Field Force and II Field Force to avoid confusion with the ARVN corps areas. [5] As of July 2016, the Army has deactivated all corps headquarters save three CONUS based corps (I Corps - Washington, III Corps - Texas, and XVIII Airborne Corps - North Carolina).

In the 1960s, the Marine Corps activated the I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) on Okinawa (based in California since 1971) and II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF) in North Carolina, and re-activated the III Amphibious Corps (which had been deactivated in 1946) as III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) in South Vietnam (re-deployed to Okinawa in 1971). In 1965, all three MEFs were subsequently re-designated as Marine Amphibious Forces or MAFs, and in 1988 all three Marine Corps corps-level commands were again re-designated as Marine Expeditionary Forces (MEF). The MEF had evolved into a self-contained, corps-level, Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) consisting of a MEF Headquarters Group, a Marine Division, a Marine Aircraft Wing, and a Force Service Support Group (re-designated as Marine Logistics Group in 2005).

Soviet Union Edit

The pre-World War II Red Army of the former USSR had rifle corps much like in the Western sense with approximately three divisions to a corps. [6] However, after the war started, the recently purged Soviet senior command (Stavka) structure was apparently unable to handle the formations, and the armies and corps were integrated. Rifle Corps were re-established during the war after Red Army commanders had gained experience handling larger formations. Before and during World War II, however, Soviet armored units were organized into corps. The pre-war Mechanized Corps were made up of divisions. In the reorganizations, these "Corps" were reorganized into tank brigades and support units, with no division structure. Due to this, they are sometimes, informally, referred to as "Brigade Buckets".

After the war, the Tank and Mechanized Corps were re-rated as divisions. During the reforms of 1956–58, most of the corps were again disbanded to create the new Combined Arms and Tank Armies. A few corps were nevertheless retained, of both patterns. The Vyborg and Archangel Corps of the Leningrad Military District were smaller armies with three low-readiness motorized rifle divisions each. The Category A Unified Corps of the Belarussian Military District (Western TVD/Strategic Direction) and Carpathian Military District (also Western TVD) were of the brigade pattern.

The Soviet Air Forces used ground terminology for its formations down to squadron level. As intermediates between the Aviation Division and the Air Army were Corps—these also had three Air Divisions each.

Administrative corps Edit

In many English-speaking countries and other countries influenced by British military traditions, a corps is also a grouping of personnel by common function, also known as an arm, service, mustering or branch.

Britain Edit

In the British Army, an administrative corps performs much the same role – for personnel that otherwise lack them – as a ceremonial regiment. An administrative corps therefore has its own cap badge, stable belt, and other insignia and traditions.

In some cases, the term corps is also used informally, for looser groupings of independent regiments and other units – and without many or any unifying regalia, military traditions or other accoutrements – such as the Royal Armoured Corps or the "Corps of Infantry".

Australia Edit

In Australia, soldiers belong foremost to a Corps which defines a common function or employment across the army. The Australian Army has a system of coloured lanyards, which each identify a soldier as part of a specific Corps (or sometimes individual battalion). This lanyard is a woven piece of cord which is worn on ceremonial uniforms and dates back to the issue of clasp knives in the early 20th century which were secured to the uniform by a length of cord.

If a soldier is posted to a unit outside of their parent corps, except in some circumstances the soldier continues to wear the hat badge and lanyard of their Corps (e.g. a Clerk posted to an infantry battalion would wear the hat badge of the Royal Australian Ordnance Corps but would wear the lanyard of the battalion they are posted to.)

Canada Edit

In Canada, with the integration of the Canadian army into the Canadian Forces, the British Corps model was replaced with personnel branches, defined in Canadian Forces Administrative Orders (CFAOs) as ". cohesive professional groups. based on similarity of military roles, customs and traditions." CFAO 2-10) [7] However, the Armour Branch has continued to use the title Royal Canadian Armoured Corps, the Infantry Branch continued to use the Royal Canadian Infantry Corps designation, and the Artillery Branch uses the term Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.

When the Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force were merged in 1968 to form the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Dental Corps and Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps were deactivated and merged with their Naval and Air Force counterparts to form the Dental Branch (Canadian Forces) and the Canadian Forces Medical Service of the Canadian Forces Health Services Group (CF H Svcs Gp). The Royal Canadian Army Service Corps transport and supply elements were combined with the Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps to form the Logistics Branch The Royal Canadian Army Service Corps clerical trades were merged with the Royal Canadian Army Pay Corps and the Royal Canadian Postal Corps to form the Administration Branch (later merged with the Logistics Branch) [8]

India Edit

Administrative corps in the Indian Army include:

New Zealand Edit

In New Zealand, soldiers belong foremost to a Corps which defines a common function or employment across the army.

If a soldier is posted to a unit outside of their parent corps, except in some circumstances the soldier continues to wear the hat badge of their Corps (e.g. a Supply Technician posted to an infantry battalion would wear the hat badge of the Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment.

United States Edit

The U.S. Armed Forces use corps administratively in several ways.

1) In the title of the United States Marine Corps, Corps is used as a service-branch designator, in much the same way as Force and Guard are used for the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Coast Guard.

2) The U.S. Army (all components Regular Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard) uses administrative corps, also known as Army Branches, to group personnel with a common function. These include the Acquisition Corps, Adjutant General's Corps, Chaplain Corps, Chemical Corps, Civil Affairs Corps, Cyber Corps, Dental Corps*, Corps of Engineers, Finance Corps, Judge Advocate General's Corps, Logistics Corps, Medical Corps*, Medical Service Corps*, Medical Specialist Corps*, Military Intelligence Corps, Military Police Corps, Nurse Corps*, Ordnance Corps, Psychological Operations Corps, Quartermaster Corps, Signal Corps, Transportation Corps, and Veterinary Corps.* Each of these corps is also considered a regiment for purposes of: ". affiliation, . loyalty and commitment, . sense of belonging, . unit esprit, and . war fighting ethos." However, these regiments have no tactical function. The six corps (annotated by an asterisk above after each applicable corps' name) of the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) are included in the AMEDD Regiment . [9]

3) U.S. Navy officers who are not Line officers (i.e., those who exercise general command authority and are eligible for operational command positions, as opposed to officers who normally exercise authority only within their own specialty [10] ) are commissioned into various Staff Corps. These officers are specialists in career fields that are professions unto themselves, such as ministers, civil engineers, architects, dentists, lawyers, physicians, healthcare administrators, healthcare scientists, clinical care providers, nurses, financial managers, and logistics and supply specialists. These corps include the Chaplain Corps, Civil Engineer Corps, Dental Corps*, Judge Advocate General's Corps, Medical Corps*, Medical Service Corps*, Nurse Corps*, and the Supply Corps. The Navy also has a Hospital Corps consisting of enlisted medical technicians. The Hospital Corps, along with the four Navy health services corps listed above (indicated by asterisk), is one of the five corps of the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.

4) The U.S. Air Force uses the title corps to designate several non-tactical organizations. These corps include five distinct health services corps of the United States Air Force Medical Service (AFMS). The AFMS corps are the Biomedical Sciences Corps, Dental Corps, Medical Corps, Medical Service Corps, and Nurse Corps. The Air Force also has its own Chaplain Corps and Judge Advocate General's Corps.

5) In the U.S. Armed Forces, the term corps is also used in a general sense to mean the collective membership of a specified military body. Those uses include: the Officer Corps and Noncommissioned Officer Corps (NCO Corps) of the armed forces, either collectively or individually by branch of service the United States Corps of Cadets at the United States Military Academy and the United States Coast Guard Corps of Cadets of the United States Coast Guard Academy the overall program title and aggregate collection of cadets and midshipmen enrolled in the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) of the several services (i.e., Army ROTC, Navy ROTC, and Air Force ROTC), as well as the cadet organizations of the six federally recognized United States Senior Military Colleges (The Citadel, Norwich University, Texas A&M University, the University of North Georgia, the Virginia Military Institute, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and the members of the Naval Sea Cadet Corps.

The Salvation Army calls its local units/church "corps" (e.g. The Rockford Temple Corps, The St. Petersburg Citadel Corps), echoing the pseudomilitary name and structure of the organization.

In the United Kingdom, the Royal Observer Corps was a civil defence unit from 1925 until disbanded in 1995.

In the US, there are non-military, administrative, training and certification Corps for commissioned officers of the government's uniformed services, such as the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps. [11] [12]

Many volunteer municipal or university ambulance, rescue, and first aid squads are known as VACs (volunteer ambulance corps). Prominent examples are the Order of Malta (the largest in Ireland), Hatzolah (largest VAC network worldwide), Hackensack VAC. The usage of the term Ambulance Corps dates to Civil War Major General George B. McClellan's General Order No 147 to create an "ambulance corps" within the Union Army. [13] GO 147 used "Corps" in one of its standard military senses. However, subsequent formations of non-military ambulance squads continued to use the term, even where they adhere less to paramilitary organizational structure.

The Peace Corps was organized by the United States as an "army" of volunteers.

U.S. Army Chaplain Corps

As long as armies have existed, military chaplains have served alongside soldiers, providing for their spiritual needs, working to improve morale, and aiding the wounded. The Bible tells of the early Israelites bringing their priests into battle with them. Pagan priests accompanied the Roman legions during their conquests as Christianity became the predominant religion of the Roman Empire, Christian chaplains administered to Roman soldiers. In fact, the word chaplain is derived from cappa, the Latin word for cloak.

The U.S. Army Chaplain Corps is one of the oldest and smallest branches of the Army. The Chaplain Corps dates back to 29 July 1775, when the Continental Congress authorized one chaplain for each regiment of the Continental Army, with pay equaling that of a captain. In addition to chaplains serving in Continental regiments, many militia regiments counted chaplains among their ranks.

Since the War for Independence, chaplains have served in every American war. Over that period, the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps has evolved, with the addition of Roman Catholic chaplains in the Mexican War, and Jewish and African American chaplains during the Civil War. The position of chaplain assistant was created to support the work of chaplains. In January 1979, the Army commissioned its first female chaplain. Today, some 1,300 active duty Army chaplains and 1,200 in the reserve components, representing five major faiths groups (Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, and Buddhist) and over 120 denominations, administer to soldiers and their families.

While their duties are primarily focused on spiritual and moral issues, many chaplains have also demonstrated tremendous bravery. Stories abound of chaplains administering the last rites to fallen soldiers, oblivious to the fire around them, or dashing out into the open to rescue the wounded without regard to their own lives. Five chaplains earned the Medal of Honor for their bravery, the most recent award made posthumously to Chaplain (MAJ) Charles J. Watters in November 1969. Dozens of other have made the ultimate sacrifice, living up the Chaplain Corps motto, Pro Deo Et Patria (For God and Country).

Congress establishes the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

On March 11, 1779, Congress establishes the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help plan, design and prepare environmental and structural facilities for the U.S. Army. Made up of civilian workers, members of the Continental Army and French officers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers played an essential role in the critical Revolutionary War battles at Bunker Hill, Saratoga and Yorktown.

The members of the Corps who had joined at the time of its founding in 1779 left the army with their fellow veterans at the end of the War for Independence. In 1794, Congress created a Corps of Artillerists and Engineers to serve the same purpose under the new federal government. The Corps of Engineers itself was reestablished as an enduring division of the federal government in 1802.

Upon its reestablishment, the Corps began its chief task of creating and maintaining military fortifications. These responsibilities increased in urgency as the new United States prepared for a second war with Britain in the years before 1812. The Corps’ greatest contribution during this era was to the defense of New York Harbor—the fortifications it built not only persuaded British naval commanders to stay away from the city during the War of 1812, but later served as the foundations for the Statue of Liberty.

In subsequent years, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers evolved from providing services for the military to helping map out the uncharted territories that would become the western United States. Beginning in 1824, the Corps also took responsibility for navigation and flood control of the nation’s river systems.

Today, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers is made up of more than 35,000 civilian and enlisted men and women. In recent years, the Corps has worked on rebuilding projects in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as the reconstruction of the city of New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.

U.S. Army launches K-9 Corps

Well over a million dogs served on both sides during World War I, carrying messages along the complex network of trenches and providing some measure of psychological comfort to the soldiers. The most famous dog to emerge from the war was Rin Tin Tin, an abandoned puppy of German war dogs found in France in 1918 and taken to the United States, where he made his film debut in the 1922 silent film The Man from Hell’s River. As the first bona fide animal movie star, Rin Tin Tin made the little-known German Shepherd breed famous across the country.

In the United States, the practice of training dogs for military purposes was largely abandoned after World War I. When the country entered World War II in December 1941, the American Kennel Association and a group called Dogs for Defense began a movement to mobilize dog owners to donate healthy and capable animals to the Quartermaster Corps of the U.S. Army. Training began in March 1942, and that fall the QMC was given the task of training dogs for the U.S. Navy, Marines and Coast Guard as well.

The K-9 Corps initially accepted over 30 breeds of dogs, but the list was soon narrowed to seven: German Shepherds, Belgian sheep dogs, Doberman Pinschers, collies, Siberian Huskies, Malumutes and Eskimo dogs. Members of the K-9 Corps were trained for a total of 8 to 12 weeks. After basic obedience training, they were sent through one of four specialized programs to prepare them for work as sentry dogs, scout or patrol dogs, messenger dogs or mine-detection dogs. In active combat duty, scout dogs proved especially essential by alerting patrols to the approach of the enemy and preventing surprise attacks.

The top canine hero of World War II was Chips, a German Shepherd who served with the Army’s 3rd Infantry Division. Trained as a sentry dog, Chips broke away from his handlers and attacked an enemy machine gun nest in Italy, forcing the entire crew to surrender. The wounded Chips was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Star and the Purple Heart𠅊ll of which were later revoked due to an Army policy preventing official commendation of animals.


The U.S. Army Judge Advocate General's Corps is a government organization that operates like a court system. Its practitioners, referred to as Judge Advocates, are licensed attorneys qualified to represent the Army and Army Soldiers in military legal matters.

Judge Advocates are often tasked with representing Soldiers during courts-martial, but the JAG Corps actually encompasses a wide range of legal disciplines, including civil litigation, tort claims, labor law, and international law.

The areas of practice available to Judge Advocates rivals what most civilian law schools and firms provide, which makes the JAG Corps an excellent venue for young attorneys to gain experience in a competitive legal field.

Judge Advocates have the option of serving as full-time legal practitioners on active duty, or as members of the U.S. Army Reserve. Being a part of the JAG Corps offers you the opportunity to serve the United States as a member of the Judicial Branch and a champion of justice.

Judge Advocates enter the Corps as Officers and earn a competitive pay grade. They are also eligible for a promotion within the first six to 12 months of their commission, and have access to many educational opportunities and long-term career positions within the Corps.

The JAG Corps is highly selective and competitive. Learn about the preliminary qualifications to becoming a Judge Advocate.

The first step in becoming a Judge Advocate is attending the Officer Basic Course (OBC). OBC consists of two phases: the Direct Commissioned Officer Course (at Fort Benning, Georgia) and a Military Law Phase at The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center (TJAGLCS) in Charlottesville, Virginia.

The Army Corps - History


"Sky Dragons"

(Updated 6-26-08)

The XVIII Airborne Corps is the corps size element of the United States Army designed for rapid deployment anywhere in the world. Referred to as "America's Contingency Corps," it is the largest warfighting organization in the U.S. Army. It is headquartered at Fort Bragg, North Carolina and controls approximately 88,000 soldiers.

Currently assigned to the Eighteenth Corps is the 3rd Infantry Division, 10th Mountain, 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, XVIII Airborne Corps Artillery, the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, the 108th Air Defense Artillery, the 18th Aviation Brigade, the 229th Aviation Regiment, the 20th Engineer Brigade, the 525 Military Intelligence Brigade, the 16th Military Police Brigade, the 35th Signal Brigade, the 1st Corps Support Command, the 44th Medical Brigade, the 18th Finance Group, the 18th Personnel Group, and the Dragon Brigade.

The XVIII Airborne Corps was originally activated as the II Armored Corps on January 17, 1942. When the armored corps concept proved unnecessary, the unit was re-designated as the XVIII Corps at the Presidio of Monterey, California on October 9, 1943. The current XVIII Airborne Corps celebrates its birthday as August 25, 1944 when the blue airborne tab was added. On that day in Orbourne, St. George, England, the XVIII Airborne Corps assumed command of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. Within a month the Corps sent their divisions onto a combat jump in the Netherlands for Operation Market Garden.

After the Battle of the Bulge all airborne units in the U.S. Army were placed under the command of the XVIII Airborne Corps. The Corps planned and executed Operation Varsity, the crossing of the Rhine River into Germany, which included the 17th Airborne Division and the British 6th Airborne Division. The Sky Dragons were returned to the United States in June of 1945 and deactivated at Camp Campbell, Kentucky on October 15, 1945.

The XVIII Airborne Corps was reactivated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina on May 21, 1951 as part of the army buildup for Korea and the Cold War. Ever since, the XVIII Airborne Corps has been the primary strategic response force for the United States. The Corps and its various subordinate units have participated in over a dozen major operations in both the combat and humanitarian roles.

During Operation Power Pack the Corps deployed to the Dominican Republic on April 30, 1965. The Sky Dragons served as the headquarters for U.S. forces sent to restore law and order, prevent a communist takeover of the country, and to protect American lives. For Operation Urgent Fury, which began on October 25, 1983, the XVIII Airborne Corps invaded the island nation of Grenada. The Corps provided the bulk of land forces sent to rescue medical students and other stranded Americans. In this operation the Corps participated with our Caribbean allies in an international peacekeeping effort.

During Operation Just Cause, the invasion of Panama on December 20, 1989, the XVIII Airborne Corps was placed in operational command of Joint Task Force South. The Operation simultaneously struck twenty-seven targets and conducted town night parachute assaults to seize critical terrain. Operation Just Cause set the stage for a freely elected government to be established in the country.

Operation Desert Shield began on August 9, 1990. The XVIII Airborne Corps rapidly deployed to Saudi Arabia as the first ground force in theater to spearhead efforts to deter aggression and assist in the defense of friendly nations. This was the largest deployment of American troops since WWII. The Persian Gulf War started with Operation Desert Storm in February of 1991. The Sky Dragons were responsible for covering VII Corps' northern flank. The XVIII Airborne Corp launched the first ground assault into Iraq with the 82nd Airborne Division and the attached French 6th Light Armored Division. The largest, and farthest, air assault in history was conducted by the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). A mounted attack was also made by the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) and the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment. In less than 100 hours the XVIII Airborne Corps had effectively sealed off the occupying Iraqi Army and destroyed major elements of the elite Republican Guard.

During the 1990s the XVIII Airborne Corps has deployed countless Corps soldiers to more than twenty-seven countries that include Bosnia, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Haiti. They have also directed countless Joint Exercises that involve all of the services.

The XVIII Airborne Corps' most recent deployments have been in support of America's Global War on Terrorism, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. From January 2005 through January 2006, the Corps was deployed to Baghdad, where it served as the Multi-National-Corps-Iraq. The Sky Dragons deployed again to Iraq in November of 2007.

The XVIII Airborne Corps is superbly trained in tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war. They are capable of exercising the nation's ability to conduct strategic forced entry operations anywhere in the world on 18 hours notice. Those soldiers and veterans who have worn the Sky Dragon shoulder patch are a proud group of men and women who truly served their country on the cutting edge.

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The Army Corps - History

Advance elements of the corps had already arrived in June by air to make arrangements for the arrival of the corps headquarters.

V Corps hqs will temporarily operate out of the Grand Hotel in Bad Nauheim, about 25 miles north of Frankfurt.

V Corps Arty headquarters will be located at 22 Ludwig Ring (now Ludwigstrasse?), also in Bad Nauheim.

The participating V Corps forces, with 45,000 troops, included 1st Inf Div and the 2nd Armd Div and attached engineer and artillery units.

The war games included an assault crossing of the Rhine River by both American and French forces. 1st Inf Div made the assault crossing by boat from two separate points near Worms and 2nd Armd Div then crossed over two bridges built by the 547th Engr (C) Bn, 552nd Engr Ponton Bridge Co, and the 109th Engr (C) Bn. (French forces - French II and I Corps - crossed at five bridgeheads on the north and south flanks of V Corps respectively.)

NOTE: The image was too large to try to display it as one image. So I have created an 800x660 image (click on thumbnail) that is divided into hotspots. By clicking on the desired headquarters section a large resolution snippet will be displayed with the organizational information. Or, you can just click on the desired section as listed below.

The corps is a task force of combined arms and services with a composition that is not fixed. Some units (such as the HHC and the Sig Bn) are habitually assigned to provide the means needed to facilitate command and control. The Field Army assigns or attaches other units to the corps. The type and number of troop units assigned or attached to the corps are based principally upon the corps mission, the characteristics of the area of operations, the availability of units, the enemy situation, and the type of opertations contemplated.

The plan consists of two parts, the so-called basic operations plan (OPLAN) and the relevant annexes. The OPLAN includes missions, goals and operational structure to defend CENTAG detailed instructions for V Corps and its assigned combat and support troops as well as general orders for cooperation and joint actions with other NATO forces.

The annexes refer to the operational structure of the corps, boundaries of corps and divisions areas for defense operations, guiding principles for conducting operations and ensuring implementation of orders. They also include guidelines for the use of nuclear weapons and chemical agents.

I remember Larry Roberts as a Tuba player with the 84th Band. I played the flute and Piccolo with the band for close to 30 months. I agree with him when he says that it wasn't a bad way to spend your military time.

Det 1 is stationed at Gibbs Barracks, Frankfurt, and is commanded by Col Edward W. Cutler. Gibbs is where the unit's administrative and control activities are performed. Most of the detachment's four officers and 62 airmen, however, work at the DASC at Bonames AAF - the center of operations for the unit.

Prior to the activation of Det 1 in October, there was one DASC unit in Germany with headquarters in Mannheim. That unit provided direct air support to 7th Army. In October 1966 that unit was then split into two detachments with each unit supporting one Army corps (Det 1, Gibbs Bks, Frankfurt - V Corps Det 2, Robinson Bks, Stuttgart - VII Corps).

The DASC is the hub of a mobile communications network that reaches from the forward air controllers on the maneuver area battlefield to five US air bases in Germany and four US air bases in Great Britain.

Utilizing the concept of "rapid mobility", each DASC is capable of moving to the field with its respective corps headquarters during readiness tests, field problems and actual alerts. The mobile command center's numerous vehicles, portable operations shelters and self-contained power generators can be on the road in less than one hour.

Your dates are a little off on their closure/reassignment. I left there in Nov 1974 after being sent back from a cross training attempt into CCT, from which I was removed because of wounds received on Cyprus in June 74.

I was a ROMAD at the 601st DASS during all that time (Nov 1970 - Apr 1974, then back in Oct 1974 - Nov 1974), and when sent back to be reassigned to a stateside billet (after several months in hospitals) it was about Oct 1974. The unit, under commander Col. Christ, was still operational at Maurice Rose AAF, at Bonames. I left in the first week in Nov and no official word on unit changes had been received.

They Air Force has categorically denied, under requests placed through the FOI Act, that the 601st DASS and DASC at Bonames NEVER EXISTED. Only the 602, 603, 604 ever existed. ALL of my military records, (official archives, service assignments records, medical records, etc) no longer exist. I have a four year gap in my career that the AF refuses to even comment on, though I retired in 83 with 20 yrs uninterupted service.

The VA and Vandenbery AFB commanders have all tried to obtain data but have also been told no such data exists. I served several classified assignments from there that there is no record of, yet I know of 2 personnel from the 602nd who participated with me, that have those classified assignments documented on their DD-214's. Mine has NO assignment data other than retired at Vandenberg AFB with 2 yrs on station. NO assignments, NO awards, NO overseas credits (even though the archived service record shows a TS assignment to Pakistan from 67-68), no nothing.

So far that 4 year period is a figment of my imagination. I even have a re-enlistment statement during that time that says it was at an "unspecified" location and time!

Speaking as if I were still there (1974-1977), we supported field exercises by the V Corps. We had HFSSB radio vans, microwave vans and expandable vans to use as control centers operated by pilots assigned to our unit. Basically the Army would call us for air support and describe the problem and our pilots would choose the aircraft and ordnance.

We also had quick response teams in MRC-107 jeeps that would go to the field with smaller Army units.

As far as an Air Force unit we all felt closer to are Army contacts as we seldom had any contacts with other Air Force units. Even the TCW had trouble finding our location. The location was Maurice Rose AAF, which had Huey's at the time. We all lived in Army housing in downtown Frankfurt even single enlisted lived in a rented apartment downtown.

During my time there the (sp) "Baader Meinhoff gang" were active and trying to bomb military facilities in Frankfurt. There were two such happenings, one in the officers club (V Corps) and one in the "Abrams Building" (V Corps Hq). Interesting assignment that I was glad to be away from when I left .

Then the entire unit moved to Roedelheim in 1985 and I left there in 1986.

I came back to Germany in 1988, this time to support 3rd BDE 1st AD in Bamberg. After the 1st Gulf War, I PCS&rsquod in 1990.

I want to say there were 50-60 people at the 601st ASOC when I was there. We had Command and Control Radio & Sat Maintenance Vehicle Maintenance Fuels and admin folks.

We fell under V Corps (4th ASOG, I think) and the 4th ASOG had detachments all over Germany. Wherever there was a maneuver unit, there was a TACP (Tactical Air Control Party).

When we moved to Roedelheim, we had a new complex built for us right beside the Army Publications & Training Aids Center.

I was in the area a few years ago (son played soccer on a German team) and I tried to locate my old stomping grounds there but couldn&rsquot locate it.

2. The Guardian, May 1, 1953 (303 KB)

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