Admiral Edward Boscawen, 1711-1761

Admiral Edward Boscawen, 1711-1761

Admiral Edward Boscawen, 1711-1761

Successful British Admiral, Boscawen rose rapidly, from lieutenant in 1732, to commander-in-chief by land and sea in the East Indies in 1747, where he launched an unsuccessful attack on the French stronghold at Pondicherry. Lord commissioner of admiralty from 1751 until his death, vice-admiral from 1755. During the Seven Years War he played a prominent role, first as second in command under Admiral Hawke, then as commander in chief of the fleet at the siege of Louisburg in 1758, then as commander of the Mediterranean fleet, where he defeated the French Mediterranean fleet at Lagos Bay (18 August 1759), after which he was able to join Hawke in time to play a role at the battle of Quiberon Bay (20 November 1759), which ended the French naval threat during the Seven Years War.

Books on the Seven Years's War |Subject Index: Seven Years' War


BOSCAWEN, Hon. Edward (1711-61), of Hatchlands Park, Surr.

b. 19 Aug. 1711, 3rd s. of Hugh, 1st Visct. Falmouth, by Charlotte, da. of Col. Charles Godfrey, master of the jewel house, by Arabella, da. of Sir Winston Churchill, sis. of John, 1st Duke of Marlborough. m. 11 Dec. 1742, Frances, da. of William Evelyn Glanville of St. Clere, Ightham, Kent, 3s. 2da.

Offices Held

Entered R.N. 1726 lt. 1732 capt. 1737 r.-adm. 1747 v.-adm. 1755 adm. 1758 gen. of marines 1759 ld. of Admiralty 1751- d. P.C. 2 Feb. 1759.

Biography

Boscawen sat at Truro on his family interest, reinforced by his own distinction as sailor and his popularity with the families whose sons he took to sea with him. ‘Ready and decisive courage’ was deemed the distinguishing feature of his character.1 But the ‘damn ’em, fight ’em’ attitude of ‘Old Dreadnought’ (his nickname among his sailors) when transferred to politics was disconcerting for experts in that field, and perhaps most of all for his own allies. Horace Walpole describes him as ‘attached to nothing but his own opinion’.2 ‘Odd as he is’, writes Hardwicke about him to Newcastle in 17533 and again in 1760: ‘Your Grace knows he has a particular head.’4 And Newcastle to Hardwicke, 17 Oct. 1753: ‘My brother [Henry Pelham] says that Admiral Boscawen is a wild man, and he can do nothing with him.’5 And even Lord Edgcumbe, allied as he was to the Boscawens, implies as much in a letter written to a friend, 7 Oct. 1753.6

Contrary to a tacit convention which for more than forty years had left the county representation of Cornwall uncontested to the Tory country gentlemen, in October 1753 Robert Hoblyn, a Cornish squire and mineowner, since 1742 M.P. for Bristol, decided to stand against the two sitting Members, John Molesworth and James Buller. Lord Edgcumbe strongly deprecated that move—‘the Tories irritated by the opposition are very likely to endeavour at revenge in some of the boroughs’ which so far were exceptionally quiet, and this ‘for the sake only of a person, by whom there will be nothing gained [Hoblyn himself was a Tory], but the Admiral answers for his love to the ministry’.7 The point appears even more clearly in a letter from Richard Edgcumbe who had attended the nomination meeting at Bodmin on 5 Oct. He wrote to Enys:8

Apparently Boscawen was trying to make Hoblyn, the Tory, break through the traditional set-up in the county, reserving his own intervention to a future occasion. However, a week later Hoblyn withdrew his candidature.

‘But although this incident be sufficiently provoking, yet the affair of Mitchell is far more vexatious to me’, Lord Edgcumbe went on to say in his letter. Hardly in any other Cornish borough was the balance of electoral interests so complex and delicate as at Mitchell. Edgcumbe was as keen as the Boscawens to defend what he considered his due interest in the borough, but would have been satisfied with one candidate, Hussey, whom they had already nominated. But

There is a mass of conflicting evidence concerning the interplay of interests and schemes at Mitchell. But so much seems clear: that Boscawen, in his decisive manner, had with his two brothers George and John started there a canvass on 29 Aug. 1753, visiting ‘every house’,9 and this without giving the least notice to the Boscawens’ partners in the borough and subsequently acted in a manner unconducive to compromise. He managed both the election and the subsequent petition with great energy and ability, producing one of the worst parliamentary upheavals in the comparatively peaceful years of 1754-5.

In April 1755 Boscawen, in command of a squadron sailed for America, returning in November. Next, he commanded a squadron blockading Brest. He has been criticized for his part in the trial of Byng. But while there was little sympathy between the two, it is not clear that Boscawen did more than was incumbent on him as the senior member of the Admiralty Board, and its only sailor, barring Temple West, who had been Byng’s second-in-command at Minorca. In a letter to him on 4 Oct. his wife remarks: ‘I am vastly glad you have a scheme to avoid Byng’s trial’10—which hardly bears out Walpole’s story of Boscawen having shown open partisanship against Byng.11

In June 1757 Boscawen was placed once more in command of the fleet blockading Brest, but was soon recalled expected to be employed on the expedition against Rochefort but Knowles went as second-in-command to Hawke. There were rumours that Boscawen was dismissed, and that he was ‘extremely angry’.

Walpole had a similar story to tell13—and consequently, he wrote, ‘his Boscawenhood is much more Boscawened that is, surely in the deepest shade.’

But in October 1757 Boscawen was appointed second-in-command of the main fleet and in February, as admiral of the Blue, sailed as naval commander of the expedition which captured Louisburg. On his return he received the thanks of the House of Commons, and was sworn a Privy Councillor. In April 1759 he sailed for the Mediterranean, and on 18 August won the victory of Lagos Bay over the French. On his return, he was appointed general of the marines, with a salary of £3,000 per annum.

At the height of his popularity and glory he now staged his second incursion into Cornish county politics. About the end of September 1760 there were rumours that he meant to stand for the county at the general election. Lord Edgcumbe, visibly disturbed, wrote to Newcastle on 28 Sept. that the admiral had not said a word to him about it although he had stayed with him two days during the past week and while asking for the Duke’s views, reminded him of the line taken by Walpole and Pelham on similar occasions.14 The admiral had not said anything to him either, replied Newcastle on 2 Oct. and ‘I verily remember what was the opinion both of Sir Robert Walpole and my brother as to an opposition for your county’. Still, considering the admiral’s ‘rank and merit and the zeal of his family’, he would have to be supported.15

In fact, at the county meeting at Bodmin, on 10 Oct., Boscawen declared his candidature and the next day wrote to Newcastle asking for his support16 as he had not communicated with Lord Falmouth on the subject, he had not spoken about it to Newcastle and Edgcumbe either he had hoped that one of the present Members would decline, but they were now standing on a joint interest. In short, Boscawen had once more acted entirely on his own, placing a fait accompli before his brother and friends, who would undoubtedly have tried to dissuade him. And at first he seemed likely to carry it: Molesworth declined on 16 Oct., and a junction between Boscawen and Buller seemed imminent. But these proceedings displeased a good many Tory country gentlemen who felt that their candidates before acting should have taken the opinion of the county and a second county meeting was called at Bodmin on 3 Nov., at which Sir John St. Aubyn stepped into Molesworth’s place.17 An end was put to the contest by Boscawen’s death, after a short illness, at Hatchlands on 10 Jan. 1761. A friend and supporter of Buller’s wrote to him on 17 Jan.:18


Edward Boscawen MP (1711 - 1761)

Edward joined the Navy when he was twelve and his first conflict was at the War of Jenkin's Ear.

Edward Boscawen married Frances Glanville in 1742 and they had five children, three sons and two daughters.

Children of Admiral Rt. Hon. Edward Boscawen and Frances Glanville

  1. Frances Boscawen+ b. 1746, d. 14 Jul 1813
  2. Elizabeth Boscawen+ b. 28 May 1747, d. 15 Jun 1828
  3. George Evelyn Boscawen, 3rd Viscount Falmouth+ b. 6 May 1758, d. 8 Feb 1808

Edward Boscawen purchased Hatchlands Park in Surrey in 1750 and had the grounds landscaped and the house remodeled. Frances sold the house in 1770.

Admiral Edward Boscawen, returned to his home at Hatchlands Park in Surrey, England after an attack of fever where he passed away on the 10th of January 1761 and his remains were interred in Cornwall.


Contents

Early history Edit

The word Clandon (first recorded as Clanedune) goes back to Anglo-Saxon times, meaning "clean down" (open downland) from the North Downs hills that rise to the south of the village. People settled here due to the availability of water that emerged where the high chalk downs meet the lower lying clay to the north.

Chertsey Abbey, a Benedictine foundation, was patron of East Clandon from the Norman Conquest of 1066 to the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539. East Clandon appears in Domesday Book as Clanedun. It was held by Chertsey Abbey. Its assets were then: 4 hides 7 ploughs, woodland for 6 hogs. It rendered £6 per year to its overlords. [2] In ancient documents the village is also often referred to as Clandon Abbatis (Abbot's Clandon). The church was built in the 12th and 13th centuries and is a Grade I listed building (the highest category). The main addition to it has been a bell tower added in 1900. [3]

In 1544 Henry VIII granted East Clandon Manor to Sir Anthony Browne. The manor house, thought to have been close to where Hatchlands Park now is, was moated since times of unrest in the early 14th century. The house, and with it the village, changed hands many times during the next 200 years.

The oldest houses in the village, Frogmore Cottage, Lamp Cottage, Old Manor Farm, Tunmore Cottage among others, had already been built when the London brewer John Raymond sold the Hatchlands Park estate to Admiral Boscawen in 1749. The present Hatchlands House was built for him with the help of prize money from his victory over the French, and it was completed in 1758, only three years before the Admiral died.

1761 to present Edit

From 1768 the Sumner family owned the Hatchlands estate until it was bought at auction in 1888 by Lord Rendel. In 1913 his eldest daughter's son Captain Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel inherited the estate in trust. The captain was a professional architect and took a great interest in the village and its inhabitants. According to the writings of Maurice Wiggin, Goodhart-Rendel was a tall, spare, upright figure making his daily round in the village dressed in his grey tweed suit and soft brown trilby shouting to his dogs in a real Grenadier's voice. Every Christmas this 'squire' gave a children's tea party at Hatchlands, complete with Christmas tree and gifts for all comers. Christmas carol concerts are still held at Hatchlands for villagers today.

Several houses in the village were built to his drawings, including Antler's Corner, Appletree Cottage, Meadow Cottage and 5 School Lane (1910), Prospect Cottages (1914), Snelgate Cottages (1926) and the St Thomas' Housing Society Cottages (1947).

In 1945 the Hatchlands house, park and some land were given to the National Trust. When Captain Goodhart-Rendel died in 1959 the estate passed into the hands of two relatives, a split he regarded with misgivings. Late 20th century owners, the Dunne-Ritche estate, sold most houses around 1970, but a few still remain in their possession.

The TV series Catweazle was shot in East Clandon (on Home Farm), West Horsley and the surrounding area in summer 1969. Home Farm still hosts the annual Hexwood Summer Fete.

Notable residents of East Clandon Edit

Sir Anthony Browne 1500-1548. Standard bearer of England. Owner of Manor of East Clandon.

Thomas Goffe 1591-1629. A minor Jacobean playwright. Rector of East Clandon

Admiral Edward Boscawen. 1711-1761. Builder of Hatchlands Park.

Stuart, Baron Rendel 1834-1913. Founder of University College of Wales, Aberystwyth and owner of Hatchlands Park.

Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel. 1887-1959. Architect and Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford University. President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Owner of Hatchlands Park.

Francis Octavius Grenfell VC. Recipient of the first Victoria Cross of the First World War born at Hatchlands Park.

Sir Freddie Laker. 1922-2006. Airline pioneer. Lived at New Manor Farm.

The average proportion of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average that was apartments was 22.6%.

2011 Census Key Statistics
Output area Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares [1]
(Civil Parish) 268 109 46.8% 27.5% 586 [1]

The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remainder is made up of rented dwellings (plus a negligible % of households living rent-free).


Contents

Lords Admiral were appointed from the 15th century they were later styled Lords High Admiral until the 18th century, and Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty from the 17th century, as the governors of the English and later British Royal Navy. From 1683 to 1684, there were seven paid Commissioners, and one unpaid supernumerary Commissioner. The number varied between five and seven Commissioners through the 18th century. The standing of all the Commissioners was in theory the same, although the First Commissioner or First Lord exercised an ascendancy over his colleagues from an early date. [9]

The generally recognized office of Senior Naval Lord to the Board of Admiralty was established on 8 March 1689, [5] with the first incumbent being Admiral Arthur Herbert he was also First Lord of the Admiralty. On 20 January 1690 Admiral Herbert was succeeded by Admiral Sir John Chicheley [5] under First Lord of Admiralty Thomas Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. [9]

On 22 May 1702 the Board of Admiralty ceased control of Naval Affairs and was replaced by the Lord Admiral's Council. [5] The previous office of Senior Naval Lord was replaced by a Senior Member to the Lords Admiral Council he was usually a serving naval officer of Admiral rank and was the Chief Naval Adviser to the Lord Admiral. This lasted until 8 November 1709, when the Board of Admiralty resumed control of Naval Affairs and the post of Senior Naval Lord was resumed. [9]

On 2 February 1771 the office of Senior Naval Lord was renamed to First Naval Lord. [6] The first post holder was Vice-Admiral Augustus Hervey he first served under First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. In 1805, for the first time, specific functions were assigned to each of the 'Naval' Lords, who were described as 'Professional' Lords, leaving to the 'Civil' Lords the routine business of signing documents. [9] On 2 May 1827 [10] the Board of Admiralty once again ceased control of Naval Affairs and was replaced, until 1828, by a Lord High Admirals Council. [9]

The title of the First Naval Lord was changed to First Sea Lord on the appointment of Sir Jackie Fisher in 1904. [11] In 1917 the First Sea Lord was re-styled First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff. [12] From 1923 onward, the First Sea Lord was a member of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, and from 1923 to 1959, in rotation with the representatives of the other services (the Chief of the Imperial General Staff and Chief of the Air Staff), he served as the chairman of that committee and head of all British armed forces. [a] The title was retained when the Board of Admiralty was abolished in 1964 and the Board's functions were integrated into the Ministry of Defence. [13]

Under the current organisation, the First Sea Lord sits on the Defence Council, [2] the Admiralty Board [2] and the Navy Board. [14]

Since 2012, the flagship of the First Sea Lord has nominally been the ship of the line HMS Victory, which used to be Lord Nelson's flagship. [15]

The following table lists all those who have held the post of First Sea Lord or its preceding positions. Ranks and honours are as at the completion of their tenure:


Admiral Edward Boscawen, 1711-1761 - History

Edward Boscawen by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c. 1755.

Admiral Edward Boscawen,(1711-61) joined the British Navy at the age of 12 years and remained in its service for the rest of his life. Though he died young, he achieved one of the great careers in British naval history. One example of his success came as commander of the British Blue fleet during the investment of Fortress Louisburg, July,1758, thus providing a staging area for Gen. James Wolfe’s campaign against Québec City. Boscawen was nicknamed “Wry-necked Dick” due to a habit of cocking his head to one side, as captured by Reynolds in his portrait above.

During the French West Indies campaign, Boscawen took part in capturing the island of Guadaloupe. Lasting from January to May of 1759, the battle resulted in the British wresting Guadaloupe from the French. In the first Treaty of Paris (1763) France regained the West Indies by relinquishing its claims to Canada.

In his book, As If An Enemy’s Country, Richard Archer wrote: After the conquest of the island of Guadaloupe during the Seven Year War, Admiral Edward Boscawen procured 8 or 10 boys whom he gave to his brother, at the time the commanding officer of the 29th regiment. Boscawen thought the boys would be attractive and exotic ornaments and made them drummers, starting a tradition that continued until 1843. [1.]

Were these Afro-Caribbean boys the genesis of exotically clad Negro or Blackamoor drummers in Britain’s military bands? After a conversation about Boscawen a scholar friend, David Waterhouse did some research and sent me the following report:

Blackamoor first appears in Lord Berners’s translation of Froissart (1525), referring to two blacke Moores richely apparelled: so already there was the tendency to dress them up.

British Band in St. James courtyard. c. 1790.

Meanwhile, I think I have tracked down the immediate source of your story about Admiral Boscawen. Hugh Barty-King, in his The Drum (London: The Royal Tournament, 1988), p. 57, says:

“But the man who brought a spate of black drummer appointments in the British army was a naval man, Admiral Boscawen. Being in the Caribbean at the surrender of Guadeloupe in 1759, he cornered ten West Indian boys and brought them home in his ship. Once in England he presented them to his soldier brother who commanded Thomas Farrington’s Regiment, the 29th Foot (late The 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment). Permission was obtained from King George III to retain them as drummers, the last of the line dying in July 1843. From then on it became The Thing to have black drummers in British military bands and dress them more and more fancifully…

There is more, both before and after this passage: Barty-King refers to Moorish drummers in the 4th Dragoons as early as 1715.

David sent me the lenghty entry on Adm. Edward Bascawen from the Dictionary of National Biography, published by Oxford University Press in 60 volumes in 2004. There is no mention of him being associated with negro, black or Blackamoor drummers.

“Stories containing incorrect information persist. They are repeated over and over. I don’t know Hugh Barty-King. What was his primary source? You must go back to the primary source.” David Waterhouse

And so gentle reader, until a primary source is found, we must take the Boscawen story as written by Archer and his probable source Hugh Barty-King, with a grain of salt.

True or not, I believe all the accounts above about Blackamoor and black drummers had to do with Snare Drummers only. Boscawen’s battle for Guadaloupe predated the famous print of a British Band in St. James courtyard by perhaps thirty years and by nine years the disembarkment of the 29th Regiment at Boston. Therfore my next question is, when and by whose order did British bandsmen begin playing Bass drums, Cymbals, Triangles,Tambourines,Tenor drums and the Jingling Johnny? This instrumental component was referred to as the Janissary by British band musicians. [2.] Surely, they were meant not for combat, but for Pomp and Circumstance only. A Janissary was not with the 29th Regiment in Boston,[3.] as it certainly would have created a sensation and been reported.

The Court-marshal and execution of Adm. John Byng (1704-57) was a very controversial and dark affair in British military history. Adm. Boscawen, a strict traditionalist, signed both orders in 1757. Notables including The First Lord of Chatham, William Pitt (1708-80), came to Byng’s defense, but George III refused to repeal the judgement. Byng knelt on a pillow and instructed the guardsmen to fire when he dropped his handkerchief.

The shooting of Admiral Byng.

[1.] See Archer, Richard under Sources.

[2.] The Janissary, meaning New Soldier, was formed in Turkey by an Ottoman sultan sometime during the late 12th century and disbanded by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826. Young men and boys were kidnapped or otherwise recruited from countries outsideTurkey and trained for duty as bodyguards for the sultan. The Janissary and their music were encountered by the west during European crusades which began in 1096. After their defeat at the second battle of Vienna in 1683, Turkish music instruments were collected from the field of battle by European soldiers. As a sign of respect, Suleiman I sent the Polish hero, Jan Sobieski now King John III, whose cavalry threw back the last Ottoman attack, a troop of Janissaries and its musicians. Not much time passed before composers such as Gluck, Haydn and Mozart made use of the new and exotic Janissary sounds.

[3,.] This was the British occupation referred to in the title of Archer’s book. The Bostonians considered themselves British citizens loyal to the King and were not amenable to being occupied by soldiers. As Archer said: The presence of a standing army was alarming enough to the citizens of Boston, but having armed Irishmen and Afro-Caribbeans in their midst was a nightmare.

a.) Anderson, Fred: The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War: Viking and The War That Made America Llc and French and Indian War 250 Inc. 2005.

b.) Archer, Richard: As If An Enemy’s Country, The British Occupation of Boston and the Origins of Revolution, Oxford University Press, 2010.

c.) Fisccher, David Hackett: Washington’s Crossing: David Hackett Fischer, 2004 and Recorded Books, 2004.

d.) Philbrick, Nathanial: Bunker Hill, A City, A Siege, A Revolution: Penguin Audio Books.

e.) Tourtellot, Authur Bernon: William Diamond’s Drum, Doubleday and Company Inc, 1959.


Admiral Edward Boscawen, 1711-1761 - History

In 1749, Edward and Fanny bought Hatchlands Park, near Guildford, in Surrey. It was an estate that Fanny had set her heart on some time before. Fanny wrote in her journal on 10th August 1748 that she had ‘made no enquiries, my heart still fixed at Hatchlands.’ 2

Again, on 23rd November 1748 Fanny wrote:

In 1757, they commissioned a new house at Hatchlands with interiors designed by Robert Adam.

Adam fireplace in the Drawing Room, Hatchlands
from The architecture of Robert and James Adam by AT Bolton (1922)
A successful naval career

You can read more about the bluestocking circle on my earlier blog here.

Hannah More
from Memoirs of the life and correspondence
of Mrs Hannah More by William Roberts (1835)
Family sadness

Fanny died on 26 February 1805 at her home in South Audley Street, London. She was buried in her husband’s tomb in Cornwall.


Edward Boscawen

Admiral Edward Boscawen, PC was an Admiral of the Royal Navy and member of Parliament for the borough of Truro, Cornwall. He is known principally for his various naval commands in the 18th century and obligations, which he won, including the siege of Louisbourg in 1758 and battle of Lagos in 1759. He is also remembered as the officer who signed the warrant authorising the execution of Admiral John Byng in 1757 for refusing to fight in the battle of Menorca. In his political role, he served as a member of Parliament for Truro from 1742 until his death although due to the almost constant naval employment he does not seem to have been particularly active. He also served as one of the lords commissioners of the Admiralty to the Board of the Admiralty in 1751 and as a member of the privy Council from 1758 until his death in 1761.

1. Early life. (Ранняя жизнь)
The honourable Edward Boscawen was born in Tregothnan, Cornwall, England on 19 August 1711, the third son of Hugh Boscawen, 1st Viscount Falmouth 1680-1734 his wife Charlotte Godfrey died in 1754, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Colonel Charles Godfrey, master of jewel office by his wife Arabella Churchill, the Kings mistress, and sister of the Duke of Marlborough.
The young Edward joined the Navy at the age of 12 years on Board Her Majestys glorious 60 guns. Great was sent to the West Indies with Admiral Francis hosier.: 181 Boscawen stayed with superb for three years during the Anglo-Spanish war. Subsequently he was transferred to HMS Canterbury, HMS Hector and HMS NAMUR under the command of Admiral sir Charles wager and was aboard the NAMUR when she sailed to Cadiz and Livorno in accordance with the Treaty of Seville which ended the hostilities between Britain and Spain. 25 may 1732 Boscawen was promoted Lieutenant and in August of the same year returned to his old ship the 44-gun fourth rate Hector in the Mediterranean. He remained with her until 16 October 1735 when he was promoted to the 70-gun HMS Grafton. On 12 March 1736 Boscawen was appointed Admiral sir John Norris to the temporary command of the 50-gun Leopard TM. His promotion was approved by the Council of the Admiralty. In June 1738 Boscawen was given command of HMS "Shoreham", a small sixth rate of 20 guns.: 182 he was ordered to accompany Admiral Edward Vernon in the West Indies in preparation for the impending war with Spain.: 182

2.1. The war of Jenkins ear. Porto Bello. (Порто Белло)
The war of Jenkins ear was Boscawens the first opportunity for action and when Shoreham was found unfit for service, he volunteered to accompany Vernon and the fleet sent to attack Porto Bello.: 182
During the siege Boscawen was ordered with sir Charles Knowles to destroy the FORTS.: 182 the task took three weeks and 122 barrels of gunpowder, but the British levelled the FORTS surrounding the city. The achievement of the vernons was seen in Britain as an outstanding feat of arms and in the furore that surrounded the announcement the Patriotic song "Rule, Britannia" was played for the first time. The streets were named after Porto Bello throughout Britain and its colonies. When the fleet returned to Port Royal, Jamaica Shoreham had been refitted and Boscawen resumed command of her.: 182

2.2. The war of Jenkins ear. Cartagena. (Картахена)
In 1741 Boscawen was part of the fleet sent to attack another Caribbean port, Cartagena de Indias.: 182 large reinforcements were sent from Britain, including the 8.000 soldiers who landed to attack the chain of fortresses around the Spanish colonial city. The Spaniards of about 6.000 troops are composed of regular soldiers, sailors and locals loyalists. The siege lasted more than two months, during which British troops suffered over 18.000 casualties, the vast majority from disease. Of Vernons fleet suffered from dysentery, scurvy, yellow fever and other diseases that were widespread throughout the Caribbean during the period. The result of the battle, Prime Minister Robert Walpoles government collapsed and George II stripped him of the promise of the support of the Austrians, if the Prussians in Silesia. Lose Vernon was one of the factors contributing to the increased hostilities of the War of the Austrian succession. However, boscawen distinguished himself again. The army, which he commanded played a crucial role in capturing Fort San Luis and Boca Chica castle, and together with Beyonce, he destroyed captured FORTS when the siege was abandoned. For his services he was promoted in may 1742 he attained the rank of captain and appointed to command the 70-gun Prince Frederick to replace Lord Aubrey Beauclerk who had died during the siege.: 185

3. The war of the Austrian succession. (Война за Австрийское наследство)
In 1742 boscawen returned in the Prince Frederick to England where she was repaid: 185 and Boscawen joined the fleet commanded by Admiral Norris in the newly built 60-gun HMS dreadnought. In the same year he was returned as member of Parliament for Truro, a position he held until his death. In the General election of 1747 he was also returned in Saltash, but chose to continue to sit for Truro.
In 1744 the French attempted an invasion of England and Boscawen was with the fleet under Admiral Norris when the French fleet was seen. The French, under the command of Admiral Rocquefeuil retreated and the British attempts to engage were confounded by severe storm, which struck the English channel.
While cruising the channel, Boscawen had the good fortune to capture the French frigate medee website.: 185 she was the first capture of an enemy ship made during the war of the Austrian succession and commanded by M. de Hocquart. The site medee was sold and became a successful privateer under a New name Boscawen commanded by George Walker.
At the end of 1744 Boscawen was to command the HMS Royal Sovereign, guardship at the Nore anchorage. He commanded her until 1745 when he was appointed one of their old Navy ships NAMUR decreased from 90 razeed to 74-guns guns.: 185 he was appointed to command a small squadron of Vice-Admiral Martin in the channel.: 185

3.1. The war of the Austrian succession. The first battle of Cape Finisterre. (Первое сражение мыса Финистерре)
In 1747 boscawen ordered to join Admiral Anson and took an active part in the first battle of Cape Finisterre.: 186 British Navy saw the French fleet on 3 may. The French fleet under Admiral de La jonquiere was convoying its merchant fleet to France and the British attacked. The French fleet was almost completely destroyed with all but two of the attendants took six frigates. Boscawen was injured in the shoulder during the battle at musket bullets.: 291 once more the French captain, M. de Hocquart became Boscawens captured and was taken to England.

3.2. The war of the Austrian succession. The team in India. (Команда в Индии)
Boscawen was appointed rear-Admiral of the blue on 15 July 1747 and was appointed to command joint operations to travel to the East Indies.: 186 with his flag in the NAMUR and five other line of battle ships, several smaller men of war, and a number of transports Boscawen sailed from England on 4 Nov 1747. On the outer journey Boscawen made an abortive attempt to capture Mauritius by surprise, but were expelled by the French forces.: 188-189 Boscawen continued on arriving at Fort St. David, near the town of Cuddalore on 29 July 1748: 190 and assumed the command of Admiral Griffin. Boscawen had been ordered to capture and destroy the main French settlement in India, Pondicherry. Factors such as Boscawens lack of knowledge and experience of land offensives, mistakes of engineers and artillery officers under his command, the absence of the secrecy surrounding the work and skill of the French Governor Joseph françois Dupleix combine to thwart the attack. British troops amounting to about 5.000 men captured and destroyed the outlying Fort Aranciopang.: 191 this capture was the only success of the operation and after an unsuccessful attempt to break through the walls of the city the British troops were withdrawn.: 192-199 among the soldiers was a young ensign Robert Clive, later known as Clive of India and major stringer Lawrence, later the commander-in-chief, India. Lawrence was captured by the French during the retreat and exchanged after the news of the Treaty of AIX-La-Chapelle reached India.: 192-199 for Boscawen rainy season remained in the Fort St. David. Fortunately, for the Admiral and his staff, when a storm fell upon the British Boscawen was ashore but his flagship, the NAMUR went down with over 600 people on Board.: 200
Boscawen returned to England in 1750.: 199-200 in 1751 Anson became First Lord of the Admiralty and asked Boscawen to the composition of the Admiralty Board. Boscawen remained one of the Lord commissioners of the Admiralty until his death.

4. Seven Years War. (Семь Лет Войны)
4 Feb 1755 Boscawen was appointed Vice-Admiral: 200 and was given command of a squadron on North American station. A squadron of partially disarmed French ships of the line were sent to Canada for reinforcements and Boscawen was ordered to intercept them. The French Ambassador in London, the Duc de Mirepoix had informed the government of George II that any act of hostility taken by British ships would be considered an act of war. Thick fog hampered both Boscawens reconnaissance and scattered the French ships, but on 8 June Boscawens squadron noticed Alcide, the Lys and the Dauphin Royal of Cape ray off Newfoundland. During subsequent interactions, the British captured the Alcide and Lys but the Dauphin Royal escaped into the fog.: 200 among 1.500 men taken prisoner was the captain of the Alcide. For M. de Hocquart it was the third time that Boscawen had fought him and took his ship.: 185: 202 pay the amount of £80.000 was captured aboard the Lys.: 202 Boscawen, Vice-Admiral, squadron commander, would be entitled to a greater share in the prize money. The British squadron went to Halifax to regroup but a fever spread through the ships and Vice-Admiral was forced to return to England.
Boscawen returned to the channel fleet and the commander in chief at Portsmouth during the trial of Admiral John Byng. Boscawen signed the execution order after the king refused to give the unfortunate Admirals pardon. Boscawen was moved to a more senior sea Lord on the Admiralty Board in November 1756, but then stood down as senior naval Lord, although he remained on Board in April 1757, during the Ministry of the superintendent before put forward a senior naval Lord again in July 1757.

4.1. Seven Years War. Siege Of Louisbourg. (Осада Луисбурга)
In October 1757 Boscawen was second in command under Admiral Edward hawke. On 7 February 1758 Boscawen was promoted to Admiral of the blue squadron. and ordered to take the fleet to North America. Once there, he took naval command at the siege of Louisbourg in June and July 1758.: 202-204 for this reason, and not to trust the ground attack on the naval commander, the army under the command of General Jeffery Amherst and Brigadier James Wolfe. The siege of Louisbourg was one of the main participants in the capture of the French possessions in Canada.: 202-204 Wolfe later used Louisburg as a staging point for the siege of Quebec. The capture of the city took from the French the only effective naval base that they have in Canada, as well as leading to the destruction of four ships of the line and hijacking. On his return from North America Boscawen was awarded the Thanks of both houses of Parliament for his services. The king made Boscawen a Privy Counsellor in recognition for his future work as a member of the Board of Admiralty and commander in chief.: 205

4.2. Seven Years War. The battle of Lagos. (Битве при Лагосе)
In April 1759 Boscawen took command of the fleet bound to the Mediterranean. His goal was to prevent another planned invasion of England by the French. With his flag aboard the new HMS NAMUR of 90 guns he blockaded Toulon and kept the fleet of Admiral de Le clue-Sabran in port. In order to tempt the French out of port, Boscawen sent three of their ships to bombard the port. The gun batteries surrounding the town, drove off the British ships. Having sustained damage in the action and due to the constant weathering of ships on blockade duty Boscawen took his fleet to Gibraltar to repair and resupply. On 17 August the frigate, which was ordered to watch the Strait of Gibraltar indicates that the French fleet was in sight. Boscawen took his available ships in the sea, to engage de La key. During the night, the British pursued the French fleet and five tips ships de La were able to separate from the fleet and escape. The others were driven to a Bay near Lagos, Portugal. The British modernized the remaining seven ships of the French fleet and engaged. The French line of battle ship "centaur" started a duel with the NAMUR but was disarmed and struck her colors. The damage aboard the NAMUR forced Boscawen to shift his flag on HMS Newark of 80 guns. During the transfer between ships, a small boat that Boscawen was shot down by enemy core. Boscawen took off his wig and plugged the hole.: 128 two French ships, the sovereign and the Warrior escaped during the Second night and morning of 19 August the British captured temeraire and Modeste, and drove the French flagship ocean and Redoutable not ashore, where they failed and were set on fire by their crews to stop the British to remove them and repair them.: 208 the five French ships to escape the battle made its way to Cadiz, where Boscawen ordered Admiral Thomas Broderick To blockade the port.

5. Last years, death and legacy. (Последние годы, смерть и наследство)
Boscawen returned to England, where he received the rank of General of infantry in recognition of his service. He was given the freedom of the city of Edinburgh. Admiral Boscawen returned to the sea for the last time and took his station off the West coast of France around the Bay of Quiberon. After the attack which was later diagnosed as typhoid Admiral came ashore where, on 10 January 1761, he died at his home in Hatchlands Park in Surrey. His body was taken to the Church. Michaels, St. Michael Penkevil, Cornwall, where he was buried. A monument in the Church begins:
Here lies the right Honourable Edward Boscawen, Admiral-General blue, Marines, Lord of the Admiralty, and one of His Majestys most venerable Privy Council. His birth, though noble, his titles, though illustrious, but there were occasional additions to his greatness.: 211
William pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham and Prime Minister once said to Boscawen: "when I apply to other officers respecting any expedition I may chance to project, they always raise difficulties, you will always find a way."

5.1. Last years, death and legacy. Heritage. (Наследие)
In the town of Boscawen, new Hampshire named after him. Two ships and a stone frigate of the Royal Navy bore the name HMS boscawen is, after Admiral Boscawen, whilst another ship was planned but the plans were shelved before she was commissioned. The stone frigate was a training base for naval cadets, and later was a three-ship renamed HMS boscawen whilst used as a base for learning to create.

5.2. Last years, death and legacy. Quotes. (Цитаты)
Boscawen was quoted as saying, "to make sure I lose the fruits of the earth, but then, I gather flowers of the sea" 1756, and "is not lit up, my lads, till you see the whites Frenchmens eyes."

6. Frances Evelyn Boscawen. (Фрэнсис Эвелин Боскавен)
In 1742 Boscawen married Frances Evelyn Glanville 1719-1805, with whom he had three sons and two daughters, and which became an important hostess of bluestocking meetings after his death. Eldest daughter Frances married John Leveson-Gower, and the youngest, Elizabeth, married Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort.

  • Edward Boscawen 1628 28 October 1685 was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1659 and 1685. Boscawen was the son
  • Boscawen may refer to: Boscawen surname Boscawen New Hampshire, a town in the United States Boscawen District a Unitary Authority Electoral Division
  • Evelyn Edward Thomas Boscawen 7th Viscount Falmouth, KCVO, CB 24 July 1847 1 October 1918 was a British peer and British Army officer. Boscawen was
  • Edward Boscawen 1st Earl of Falmouth 10 May 1787 29 December 1841 known as the Viscount Falmouth between 1808 and 1821, was a British peer and politician
  • Lieutenant - Colonel Sir Edward Boscawen Frederick, 9th Baronet, CVO 29 June 1880 26 October 1956 was a British Army officer, first - class cricketer
  • and 1841, was a British peer and politician. Falmouth was the son of Edward Boscawen 1st Earl of Falmouth and Anne Frances Bankes. He was returned to Parliament
  • Gentlemen - at - Arms in the reign of George III. Boscawen was the third and youngest, but only surviving son of Admiral Edward Boscawen 1711 1761 by his marriage to Frances
  • and clergyman Charles Boscawen 1627 1689 English politician Edward Boscawen MP 1628 1685 English politician Edward Boscawen 1711 1761 British
  • Lieutenant - General George Boscawen 1 December 1712 3 May 1775 was a British Army officer and politician, the fourth son of Hugh Boscawen 1st Viscount Falmouth
  • incorporated as a town by Governor Benning Wentworth, who named it for Edward Boscawen the British admiral who distinguished himself at the 1758 Siege of
  • 1702 until 1720 when he was raised to the peerage. Boscawen was the eldest son of Edward Boscawen 1628 1685 MP and merchant, by his wife Jael Godolphin
  • brothers were Nicholas Boscawen Charles Boscawen 1627 1689 and Edward Boscawen 1628 1685 He and his brothers Charles and Edward were MPs in Cornwall
  • October 1627. His brothers were Hugh Boscawen 1625 1701 MP, and Edward Boscawen 1628 1685 MP, father of Hugh Boscawen 1st Viscount Falmouth 1680 1734
  • Glanville on 23 July 1719 at St Clere, Kemsing, Kent. In 1742 she married Edward Boscawen 1711 1761 When his navy work took him away from home, his wife would
  • was for Edward Boscawen 4th Viscount Falmouth. It became extinct in 1852. Charles Berkeley, 1st Earl of Falmouth bef. 1636 1665 Edward Boscawen 1st Earl
  • Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, and Admiral Edward Boscawen victor over the French at the Battle of Lagos. Boscawen was educated at West Downs School and Eton
  • central Truro. Boscawen Park is not located in the electoral ward but shares the same name. The name probably originates from Edward Boscawen an admiral
  • to only the 18th century when it was made up by Iolo Morganwg, Edward Williams. Boscawen - Un is in southwest Cornwall, in the Penwith district north of
  • to Sir William Symonds design. She was named for Admiral Edward Boscawen In 1873, Boscawen replaced Wellesley the former HMS Cornwall as the training
  • General Hugh Boscawen 2nd Viscount Falmouth 20 March 1707 4 February 1782 styled The Honourable Hugh Boscawen between 1720 and 1734, was a British
  • Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Boscawen after Admiral Edward Boscawen whilst another ship was planned: HMS Boscawen 1763 was a 4 - gun cutter purchased
  • River End. Boscawen Park is not located in the Boscawen electoral ward but shares the same name. The name probably originates from Edward Boscawen an admiral
  • George Boscawen born 4 September 1745 was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1780. Boscawen was the son of Lieutenant - General
  • George Henry Boscawen 2nd Earl of Falmouth 1811 1852 Evelyn Boscawen 6th Viscount Falmouth 1819 1889 Evelyn Edward Thomas Boscawen 7th Viscount
  • George Hugh Boscawen 9th Viscount Falmouth, DL born 31 October 1919 is a Cornish peer and landowner. His subsidiary titles include Baron Le Despencer
  • of WottonCommissioner of the customs, and his wife Anne Boscawen daughter of Edward Boscawen MP. He matriculated at Queen s College, Oxford, on 28 May
  • Edward Leveson - Gower 8 May 1776 6 December 1853 was a British naval officer, the son of Admiral The Hon. John Leveson - Gower and Frances Boscawen
  • Arthur Edward Somerset 28 August 1813 9 September 1853 married his first cousin, Hon. Frances Boscawen daughter of Rev. Hon. John Evelyn Boscawen and
  • and Hughes received the vacated command. Captain Hughes was with Edward Boscawen at Louisburg and with Charles Saunders at Quebec. He was in continual
  • Evelyn Boscawen 6th Viscount Falmouth 18 March 1819 6 November 1889 was a breeder of race horses and the winner of many classic races. His parents

Boscawen, Hugh. The Capture of Louisbourg, 1758.

Wife Partner: Frances GRANVILLE Children: Elizabeth BOSCAWEN Frances m​. John Leveson Gower George 3rd Viscount Falmouth m. Elizabeth Anne. Edward Boscawen N 1711. People also search for. Person:Edward Boscawen 4 Genealogy WeRelate. Oct 17, 2012 Discover artworks, explore venues and meet artists. Art UK is the online home for every public collection in the UK. Featuring over 200000 oil.

The Honourable Edward Boscawen, Admiral of the Blue Squadron.

Edward Boscawen 1711 1761. British is a drawing by Vintage Design Pics which was uploaded on July 29th, 2015. The drawing may be purchased as wall art,. Boscawen, Edward, 1711 1761 LC Linked Data Service. This ancient house, to John de Boscawen, ancestor of the present noble owner, himself descended from the family of Boscawen, of Boscawen Следующая Войти. Edward Boscawen Oxford Reference. On April 22, 1760, Contoocook Plantation was incorporated as a town by Governor Benning Wentworth, who named it for Edward Boscawen, the British admiral.

Portrait of Edward Boscawen by John Riley on artnet.

​BOSCAWEN, EDWARD 1711–1761, admiral, third son of Hugh, first Viscount Falmouth, and of Charlotte, eldest daughter of Charles. Major The Hon. George Edward Boscawen Royal Field Artillery. Into captivity. On April 22, 1760, Contoocook Plantation was incorporated as a town by Governor Benning Wentworth, who named it for Edward Boscawen, the. Admiral Edward Boscawen 1711–1761 Art UK Art UK Discover. Title: Portrait of Edward Boscawen. Medium: Oil on Canvas Size: 73.5 x 59.5 cm. 28.9 x 23.4 in. Sale: Estimate: Price: Bid Department. Price Database.

Boscawen NH Community Profile Economic & Labor Market.

Edward Boscawen, British admiral who played a distinguished part in the Seven Years War. The third son of Hugh, 1st Viscount Falmouth,. The Capture of Louisbourg, 1758 – By Hugh Boscawen Eames. In 1760, the town was incorporated as Boscawen, in honor of an English admiral, Edward Boscawen, who fought under General Amherst in the conquest of. Collection, Granger Edward Boscawen N 1711 1761. Known As. Edward Boscawen, Sayer Giclee Print at. Choose from over 500000 Posters & Art Prints. Value Framing, Fast Delivery, 100% Satisfaction. Adml. Edward Boscawen b. 1711 d. 1761: MacFarlane Clan. Free Shipping! Edward Boscawen N 1711 1761. Known As Old Dreadnought. English Naval Officer. Copper Engraving, 18Th Century. Poster Print by.

Joshua Reynolds Admiral Edward Boscawen Art, Joshua.

Adml. Edward Boscawen b. 1711 d. 1761: MacFarlane Clan & Families Genealogy. Boscawen, Edward 1711–1761, naval officer and politician. First World War casualty details for Major The Hon. George Edward Boscawen Royal Field Artillery. Date of death Friday 7 June 1918 aged 29. Adm Right Hon Edward Boscawen British Museum. The Honourable Edward Boscawen, Admiral of the Blue Squadron of His Majestys Fleet and one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Zoom in.

Admiral Boscawen – Cornish studies resources Bernard Deacon.

Admiral Edward Boscawen 1711 1761. Boscawen, coming from a distinguished family of Cornwall, entered the navy in 1726 and was put aboard the 60 gun. Edward BOSCAWEN Pedigree. OnThisDay 1759 Admiral Edward Boscawen engaged and defeated a French Fleet at the Battle of Lagos, off Portugal, during the 7 Years War.

Edward Boscawen Naval Commander Drawing by Mary Evans.

Mrs. Edward Boscawen from 1719 to 1761, Author: C F Aspinall Oglander Frances Evelyn Glanville Boscawen Publisher: London, New York Longmans, Green. Boscawen, Edward 1711 1761 DNB00 source, the free. Engraving. Portrait of Admiral Edward Boscawen 1711 1761. Engraved by J. Collyer. Engraving, printed on paper. Bust length oval portrait of middle aged. On This Day RN on Twitter: OnThisDay 1759 Admiral Edward. In these uncertain times we need your support more than ever. Please consider making a donation or joining our Friends. Become a friend Donate now Shop. Edward Boscawen Public Figure Facebook. There used to be a pub in Truro called the Admiral Boscawen. But who was Admiral Boscawen? Born this week in 1711, Edward Boscawen.

Admiral Edward Boscawen, 1711 1761 National Galleries of.

Edward Boscawen Royal Navy admiral ISNI data. Boscawen, Edward, 1711 ​1761 National Library of Israel German National Library of Congress. Boscawen Homes Land For Sale Christy Goodhue Real Estate, LLC. Boscawen, Edward 1711–61. Boscawen was a younger son of Viscount Falmouth. He went to sea at 14 and was given his first command in 1741. Wounded.

Edward Boscawen of Worthivill MP bef.1628 1685.

Apr 27, 2017 Joshua Reynolds Admiral Edward Boscawen. Admiral Edward Boscawen by Joshua Reynolds National Maritime Museum Date painted: C. Edward Boscawen, 1st Earl of Falmouth. Edward Boscawen by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c. 1755. Admiral Edward Boscawen, ​1711 61 joined the British Navy at the age of 12 years and. Edward Boscawen, Sayer Giclee Print. Ahnentafel ancestor chart for the family tree of Edward Boscawen that includes citations of all sources. Also includes family tree and ancestor charts showing.

Local History Boscawen Public Library.

EDWARD BOSCAWEN 1711 1761, British admiral, was born on the 19th of August 1711. He was the third son of Hugh, 1st Viscount Falmouth. He early. Boscawen Name Meaning, Family History, Family Crest & Coats of. Description. Edward Boscawen was the third son of Hugh Boscawen, 1st Viscount Falmouth 1680–1734 by his wife Charlotte Godfrey. In 1723.

Edward Boscawen Painting Sir Joshua Reynolds Oil Paintings.

Hon. Edward Boscawen. In more languages. Spanish. Edward Boscawen. No description defined. Traditional Chinese. 愛德華 博斯科恩. No description defined​. Edward Boscawen pedia. In more recent years, Boscawen, New Hampshire was named after Edward Boscawen, the British admiral who distinguished himself at the 1758 Siege of. Edward Boscawen data. The Honourable Edward Boscawen was born in Tregothnan, Cornwall, England on 19 August 1711, the third son of Hugh Boscawen, 1st Viscount Falmouth. 18 Aug On this day in 1759 Admiral Edward Boscawen engaged. The Edward Boscawen painting originally painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds can be yours today. All reproductions are hand painted by talented artists. Lord Falmouth George Romney Philip Mould Historical Portraits. Edward Boscawen By Sir Joshua Reynolds Art Reproduction. Choose from Canvas Art, Framed, or Unframed Wall Art. We Ship Worldwide with Free UPS.

Admirals wife being the life and letters of the Hon. Mrs. Edward.

Genealogy Royal Noble Peer Duke Count Lord Baron Baronet Sir Peer Database Family Tree Europe Nobility Knight Peerage Marquess Earl. Edward Boscawen, 1st Earl of Falmouth Person Page. Edward Boscawen, 1st Earl of Falmouth 10 May 1787 – 29 December 1841, known as the Viscount Falmouth between 1808 and 1821, was a British peer and​.


High-resolution images are available to schools and libraries via subscription to American History, 1493-1943. Check to see if your school or library already has a subscription. Or click here for more information. You may also order a pdf of the image from us here.

Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC02500.03 Author/Creator: Boscawen, Edward (1711-1761) Place Written: Gabreuse Bay Type: Letter signed Date: 10 June 1758 Pagination: 1 p. : docket 24.2 x 19.8 cm.

Orders Captain Vaughan to "receive twelve pipes of Madeira wine being two months supply," for his men. Written on board the HMS Namur.

Admiral Edward Boscawen was a British Naval hero, and tried to improve health conditions at sea.

Copyright Notice The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specific conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be “used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research.” If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of “fair use,” that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law.

(646) 366-9666

Headquarters: 49 W. 45th Street 2nd Floor New York, NY 10036

Our Collection: 170 Central Park West New York, NY 10024 Located on the lower level of the New-York Historical Society


Tag Archives: As if an Enemy’s Country

Edward Boscawen by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c. 1755.

Admiral Edward Boscawen,(1711-61) joined the British Navy at the age of 12 years and remained in its service for the rest of his life. Though he died young, he achieved one of the great careers in British naval history. One example of his success came as commander of the British Blue fleet during the investment of Fortress Louisburg, July,1758, thus providing a staging area for Gen. James Wolfe’s campaign against Québec City. Boscawen was nicknamed “Wry-necked Dick” due to a habit of cocking his head to one side, as captured by Reynolds in his portrait above.

During the French West Indies campaign, Boscawen took part in capturing the island of Guadaloupe. Lasting from January to May of 1759, the battle resulted in the British wresting Guadaloupe from the French. In the first Treaty of Paris (1763) France regained the West Indies by relinquishing its claims to Canada.

In his book, As If An Enemy’s Country, Richard Archer wrote: After the conquest of the island of Guadaloupe during the Seven Year War, Admiral Edward Boscawen procured 8 or 10 boys whom he gave to his brother, at the time the commanding officer of the 29th regiment. Boscawen thought the boys would be attractive and exotic ornaments and made them drummers, starting a tradition that continued until 1843. [1.]

Were these Afro-Caribbean boys the genesis of exotically clad Negro or Blackamoor drummers in Britain’s military bands? After a conversation about Boscawen a scholar friend, David Waterhouse did some research and sent me the following report:

Blackamoor first appears in Lord Berners’s translation of Froissart (1525), referring to two blacke Moores richely apparelled: so already there was the tendency to dress them up.

British Band in St. James courtyard. c. 1790.

Meanwhile, I think I have tracked down the immediate source of your story about Admiral Boscawen. Hugh Barty-King, in his The Drum (London: The Royal Tournament, 1988), p. 57, says:

“But the man who brought a spate of black drummer appointments in the British army was a naval man, Admiral Boscawen. Being in the Caribbean at the surrender of Guadeloupe in 1759, he cornered ten West Indian boys and brought them home in his ship. Once in England he presented them to his soldier brother who commanded Thomas Farrington’s Regiment, the 29th Foot (late The 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment). Permission was obtained from King George III to retain them as drummers, the last of the line dying in July 1843. From then on it became The Thing to have black drummers in British military bands and dress them more and more fancifully…

There is more, both before and after this passage: Barty-King refers to Moorish drummers in the 4th Dragoons as early as 1715.

David sent me the lenghty entry on Adm. Edward Bascawen from the Dictionary of National Biography, published by Oxford University Press in 60 volumes in 2004. There is no mention of him being associated with negro, black or Blackamoor drummers.

“Stories containing incorrect information persist. They are repeated over and over. I don’t know Hugh Barty-King. What was his primary source? You must go back to the primary source.” David Waterhouse

And so gentle reader, until a primary source is found, we must take the Boscawen story as written by Archer and his probable source Hugh Barty-King, with a grain of salt.

True or not, I believe all the accounts above about Blackamoor and black drummers had to do with Snare Drummers only. Boscawen’s battle for Guadaloupe predated the famous print of a British Band in St. James courtyard by perhaps thirty years and by nine years the disembarkment of the 29th Regiment at Boston. Therfore my next question is, when and by whose order did British bandsmen begin playing Bass drums, Cymbals, Triangles,Tambourines,Tenor drums and the Jingling Johnny? This instrumental component was referred to as the Janissary by British band musicians. [2.] Surely, they were meant not for combat, but for Pomp and Circumstance only. A Janissary was not with the 29th Regiment in Boston,[3.] as it certainly would have created a sensation and been reported.

The Court-marshal and execution of Adm. John Byng (1704-57) was a very controversial and dark affair in British military history. Adm. Boscawen, a strict traditionalist, signed both orders in 1757. Notables including The First Lord of Chatham, William Pitt (1708-80), came to Byng’s defense, but George III refused to repeal the judgement. Byng knelt on a pillow and instructed the guardsmen to fire when he dropped his handkerchief.

The shooting of Admiral Byng.

[1.] See Archer, Richard under Sources.

[2.] The Janissary, meaning New Soldier, was formed in Turkey by an Ottoman sultan sometime during the late 12th century and disbanded by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826. Young men and boys were kidnapped or otherwise recruited from countries outsideTurkey and trained for duty as bodyguards for the sultan. The Janissary and their music were encountered by the west during European crusades which began in 1096. After their defeat at the second battle of Vienna in 1683, Turkish music instruments were collected from the field of battle by European soldiers. As a sign of respect, Suleiman I sent the Polish hero, Jan Sobieski now King John III, whose cavalry threw back the last Ottoman attack, a troop of Janissaries and its musicians. Not much time passed before composers such as Gluck, Haydn and Mozart made use of the new and exotic Janissary sounds.

[3,.] This was the British occupation referred to in the title of Archer’s book. The Bostonians considered themselves British citizens loyal to the King and were not amenable to being occupied by soldiers. As Archer said: The presence of a standing army was alarming enough to the citizens of Boston, but having armed Irishmen and Afro-Caribbeans in their midst was a nightmare.

a.) Anderson, Fred: The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War: Viking and The War That Made America Llc and French and Indian War 250 Inc. 2005.

b.) Archer, Richard: As If An Enemy’s Country, The British Occupation of Boston and the Origins of Revolution, Oxford University Press, 2010.

c.) Fisccher, David Hackett: Washington’s Crossing: David Hackett Fischer, 2004 and Recorded Books, 2004.

d.) Philbrick, Nathanial: Bunker Hill, A City, A Siege, A Revolution: Penguin Audio Books.

e.) Tourtellot, Authur Bernon: William Diamond’s Drum, Doubleday and Company Inc, 1959.