Here Are 6 Things Albert Einstein Never Said

Here Are 6 Things Albert Einstein Never Said

The whole business of misattributing quotes certainly didn’t begin with the Internet—it’s been going on as long as anyone can remember: Once a famous person gets a reputation for saying witty, profound or inspiring things, people tend to attribute quotes to them that sound like something they might have said, but that they didn’t actually say.

Garson O’Toole—a pen name used by the writer who bills himself “The Internet’s Foremost Quote Investigator”—calls people like Abraham Lincoln, Mark Twain, Dorothy Parker, Albert Einstein, Yogi Berra, Winston Churchill and Marilyn Monroe “quote superstars.” Such famous and charismatic people often become “hosts” for quotations they never uttered, O’Toole writes in his new book, “Hemingway Didn’t Say That: The Truth Behind Familiar Quotations.”

For example, take these often repeated and reprinted Albert Einstein quotes—none of which the great physicist actually said:

“Not everything that counts can be counted.”

“The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.”

“Everyone is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”

“Two things inspire me to awe–the starry heavens above and the moral universe within.”

“Education is that which remains, if one has forgotten everything he learned in school.”

“When you sit with a nice girl for two hours you think it’s only a minute, but when you sit on a hot stove for a minute you think it’s two hours. That’s relativity.”

Now here’s the real deal on these quotes:

“Not everything that counts can be counted.
As O’Toole writes in his book, credit for this quote should go to the sociology professor William Bruce Cameron, who included it in a couple of articles and a 1963 textbook. Einstein apparently wasn’t associated with the saying until the mid-1980s, some three decades after his death.

“The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.”
A favorite of politicians (and pretty much everybody else), this quote has been wrongly attributed to Benjamin Franklin as well as—but there’s no evidence either of them said it. “The Ultimate Quotable Einstein,” an authoritative complication of his most memorable utterances, identified the quote as a misattribution, and mentioned its use in the 1983 novel “Sudden Death” by Rita Mae Brown. On his website, Quote Investigator, O’Toole traced, the link between insanity and repetition back to at least the 19th century, but noted its use in a Narcotics Anonymous pamphlet as well as novels (including Brown’s), TV shows and various other sources.

“Everyone is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”
No substantive evidence exists suggesting Einstein made this statement, though it (as O’Toole wrote on his website) has been attributed to him in at least one self-help book. In fact, the quote can be traced to a well-established allegory involving animals doing impossible things, used to illustrate the fallacy of judging someone by a skill or ability that person (or animal) does not possess.

“Two things inspire me to awe—the starry heavens above and the moral universe within.”
In fact, this one is a version of a statement made not by Einstein but by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant in his famous “Critique of Practical Reason” (1889). The actual quote is: “Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and the more intensely the mind of thought is drawn to them: the starry heavens above me and moral law within me.”

“Education is that which remains, if one has forgotten everything he learned in school.”
In “The Ultimate Quotable Einstein,” editor Alice Calaprice clarified that Einstein agreed with this statement, but did not actually say it. In fact, he was quoting a passage by an anonymous “wit” in a chapter he wrote on education, included in his book “Out of My Later Years.”

“When you sit with a nice girl for two hours you think it’s only a minute, but when you sit on a hot stove for a minute you think it’s two hours. That’s relativity.”
This admittedly vivid explanation of Einstein’s most famous theory is not something he himself said, but comes from an anecdote that was reportedly circulating around him in 1929, when it appeared in a New York Times article about him. The reporter put the anecdotal statement in quotation marks, and poof! A famous (and most likely fake) quote was born.

Quote Misquote: “Hey, I Never Said That!” –Albert Einstein

We’ve all seen inspiring quotes on social media from Mister Smarty Pants, Albert Einstein. Gizmodo has given us the info to dispute seven of these misquotes from Einstein.

1. “The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results.”
Einstein never said it…. and neither did Ben Franklin.

2. “Everything is energy and that’s all there is to it. Match the frequency of the reality you want and you cannot help but get that reality. It can be no other way. This is not philosophy. This is physics.”

3. “International law exists only in textbooks on international law.”
No. Anthropologist Ashley Montagu actually said it in an interview with Einstein.

4. “Evil is the result of what happens when man does not have God’s love present in his heart. It’s like the cold that comes when there is no heat or the darkness that comes when there is no light.”
Snopes has a good breakdown of this quote’s history.

5. “Everyone is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”
No, this one isn’t from Einstein either.

6. “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius — and a lot of courage to move in the opposite direction.”
Sorry. Not Einstein. The quote is from E.F. Schumacher‘s 1973 book Small is Beautiful.

7. “Two things inspire me to awe: the starry heavens and the moral universe within.”
No. It’s actually a version of a quote from Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason:
“Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and the more intensely the mind of thought is drawn to them: the starry heavens above me and moral law within me.”

For actual quotes from the genius, get The Ultimate Quotable Einstein here. (via Gizmodo)

Quote is misattributed to Einstein

In a book by Garson O’Toole, “Hemingway Didn’t Say That: The Truth Behind Familiar Quotations,” the author notes the quote in question has often been misattributed to Einstein.

According to, O’Toole looks into quotations attributed to well-known historic figures, such as Abraham Lincoln, Mark Twain, Winston Churchill and Marilyn Monroe. He also runs the Quote Investigator website.

The exact origin of this quote is unclear. But O’Toole noted on his website an array of similar allegories on animals in school dating to the 1800s in various journals and newspapers.

“The long history of fables about animals in schools almost certainly influenced the construction of this quotation,” O’Toole wrote on Quote Investigator. “There is no substantive evidence connecting Einstein to the quotation.”

In the book, O’Toole analyzes six quotes supposedly uttered by Einstein:

  • “Not everything that counts can be counted.”
  • “The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.”
  • “Everyone is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”
  • “Two things inspire me to awe – the starry heavens above and the moral universe within.”
  • “Education is that which remains, if one has forgotten everything he learned in school.”
  • “When you sit with a nice girl for two hours you think it’s only a minute, but when you sit on a hot stove for a minute you think it’s two hours. That’s relativity.”

The one in the Facebook post illustrates the mistaken belief of judging someone by a skill or ability they don’t possess, but Einstein never said it.

In his book “Ideas and Opinions,” Einstein wrote, “There are only a few enlightened people with a lucid mind and style and with good taste within a century. What has been preserved of their work belongs among the most precious possessions of mankind.”

That casts doubt on the idea he would say everybody is a genius.

Fact check: Fake quote calls Biden supporters a ‘confederacy of fools’

The quote also does not appear in “The Ultimate Quotable Einstein” from Princeton University Press.

This is one of my favorite quotes by Einstein because it sums up how we should learn in the 21st century.

In 1921, Einstein was asked about the speed of sound and replied that he didn’t know because he didn’t carry such information in his mind if it was readily available in textbooks.

Today, we have access to more information than ever before. We can find answers to most questions through our smartphones within just a few minutes, if not seconds.

Yet, the education system is still forcing students to memorize information for tests.

That’s not only ineffective but also worthless as information itself isn’t of value anymore. What matters is how you use that information and whether you can recall it when needed.

What Einstein did say…

  • “I am convinced that He (God) does not play dice.”
  • “I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.”
  • “Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited and imagination encircles the world.”
  • “Do not worry about your difficulties in Mathematics. I can assure you mine are still greater.”
  • “Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind.”
  • “Everyone must, from time to time, make a sacrifice on the altar of stupidity.”
  • “We’re all very ignorant, but we’re not all ignorant in the same things.”
  • “When I was young I found out that the big toe always ends up making a hole in a sock. So I stopped wearing socks.”
  • “There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.”
  • “We are architects of our own destiny.“
  • “What a sad era when it is easier to smash an atom than a prejudice.”
  • “My political ideal is democracy. Everyone should be respected as an individual, but no one idolized.”
  • “Memory is the intelligence of fools.”
  • “I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious.”
  • “The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing.”
  • “Joy in looking and comprehending is nature’s most beautiful gift.”
  • “There are no great discoveries and advances, as long as there is an unhappy child on earth.”
  • “If you are out to describe the truth, leave elegance to the tailor.”
  • “Man finds God behind each door that science opens.”
  • “The value of a product can be found in it’s production.”
  • “Maturity starts to manifest itself when we feel that our concern about others is greater than our concern about ourselves.”
  • “The world is a dangerous place to live not because of the people who are evil, but because of the people who don’t do anything about it.”
  • “Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity and I’m not sure about the the universe.”
  • “There is a driving force more powerful than steam, electricity and atomic energy: the will.”
  • “Minds are like parachutes they work best when open.”
  • “At first, all thoughts belong to love. Later on, love belongs to all thoughts.

And what he didn’t say….

  • “Insanity is doing the same thing, over and over again, and expecting different results each time.”
  • “Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me.”
  • “I think I can safely say nobody understands quantum mechanics.”
  • “Perhaps the situation could be described by saying that God is a first class mathematician who used very advanced mathematics to create the Universe.”
  • “If an elderly but distinguished scientist says that something is possible, he is almost certainly right but if he says that it is impossible, he is very probably wrong.”

Do you have anything interesting you’d like to share, or see any mistakes? Tell us about it!

But no book actually about Einstein mentions the quote…or anything else about computers.

According to the book – “The New Quotable Einstein” by Freeman Dyson (take a look at the index ), Einstein never mentioned computers at all. Why would he, he died in 1955, the best computer of the time looked like this:

The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), began construction in 1943 and was completed 1946. It occupied about 1,800 square feet, used about 18,000 vacuum tubes, and weighed almost 50 tons. When it was turned off in 1955, (the year Einstein died) its estimated to have done more arithmetic than the entire human race had done prior to 1945. That IS a lot of math, maybe its possible Einstein said it after all, but we still need evidence.

1955 in Computer history did seem to be a big year:

1955 Steve Jobs is born February 24, 1955
1955 John McCarthy coins the term Artificial Intelligence (AI) in 1955 at Dartmouth University.
1955 Dartmouth Colleges John McCarthy coins the term “artificial intelligence.”
1955 Tim Bernes-Lee is born June 8, 1955.
1955 William (Bill) H. Gates is born October 28, 1955.
1955 IBM introduces the first IBM 702 .
1955 Bell Labs introduces its first transistor computer. Transistors are faster, smaller and create less heat than traditional vacuum tubs, making these computers more reliable and efficient.
1955 The ENIAC is turned off for the last time. Its estimated to have done more arithmetic than the entire human race had done prior to 1945.

So if not Einstein, then who?

“Speaking of Science”, a book of science quotations by Jon Fripp includes the quote – but doesn’t attribute it to Einstein. The entry appears like this:

The Computer is incredibly fast, accurate and stupid. Man is unbelievably slow, inaccurate and brilliant. The marriage of the two is a challenge and an opportunity beyond imagination.
– Walesh, 1989 (Summarizing the reasons for using computer modeling for hydrologic and water quality analysis.)

Walesh huh…who’s that? While this is a book of quotes… and the while the back of his book does state that “each quote is carefully referenced”, I know I have seen it earlier than 1989

Lets see if we can find any thing before 1989

Going back to Google book search I see the quote in a fiction book – Fort Momma (Page 37 by Al Gowan – Fiction – 2003) this time attributed to Leo Cherne. Cherne’s version is slightly different:

Microcomputers and Children in the Primary School: Proceedings of … – Google Books Result

Let’s just find the oldest damn reference to it!

Here it is (that I can find) – 1969. In a journal called “Advances in Instrumentation” v.24 pt.4, 1969, page 691, published by Instrument Society of America. Google book search found it on a shelf at the University of Michigan and digitized it on Nov 28, 2007. Here is a bit of context I was able to tease out of Google by searching over and over…

“The net result of the overall program was a group of well trained men that had been training in the same way and, as a result, now operate the machine more uniformly. If you get nothing else out of computer installation other than a well trained crew, it alone makes it worth the effort. Even with a computer there is no substitute for a good operator. Computers are incredibly fast, accurate and stupid. On the other hand, a well trained operator as compared with a computer is incredibly slow, inaccurate and brilliant. We think of this feature as “intelligent override” in our control system. We feel you will always have to have this to make decisions about some phases of paper machine operation. Another fringe benefit is accurate production logs. Ours are set up on a 24-hour basis, but can be gotten on demand, to evaluate our progress on a given run. We also integrate stock, chemical, and steam consumption figures to give us a good reliable picture of grade manufacturing costs. In conclusion, we at Eastex feel that what we have done on our No. 4 Machine is merely the beginning. There is no question in our minds that in the future, DDC and the systems engineering method will become the industry standard for process design, installations and operation.”

But who is the author? – Alas, I do not know. Again, I can’t get to the article. If you have access to this book, please let me know. Something tells me there are earlier versions than this, and I doubt this is the reference that popularized it, but due to the copyright fear that grips the internet, I can not get to the top of the page…

People use quotes as a way to strengthen their own position. If I can quote someone you respect, it adds credibility to whatever argument I’m making. Over time, the truth gets further and further away. The biggest names have always attracted people who are more than willing to put words into their mouths for their own gain – Confucious, Jesus, Aristotle, Shakespere, Einstein, and the biggest, most misquoted, of them all – God. All of them have probably been quoted more for the things they never said, than things they actually did say. I imagine this is the most disappointing part of time travel, waiting around to witness words never spoken and deeds never done.

ɾinstein didn't talk until he was four'

Einstein did not start speaking until he was four, or so I was told by friends when they learned that Vincent, my toddler son, had a problem with his speech development. But it was of little comfort: I had not set out to raise another Einstein. No, I did not want him to be that special. Of course he was special to me, for who else could entertain me for hours with a little plump finger or toothless giggles? But in the meantime, wouldn't it be nice if his length and weight fell into the appropriate percentiles, and he rolled over and sat and crawled and talked at the right time - in a word, that he was normal.

The problem began during the well-baby check at the pediatrician's office in Iowa when he turned one. We were informed that Vincent was not making enough meaningful babbling. According to the doctor, a one-year-old baby should have a vocabulary of at least three to five words and be able to repeat syllables such as mama, baba and dada Vincent mastered none of the required skills. He was a gesturer only.

The doctor suggested we have Vincent evaluated by a speech therapist. We agreed halfheartedly to consider the option - despite my early obsession with all the milestones a baby should reach, by this time I was relaxed enough not to panic. After all, even though Vincent failed to roll over at the fifth month when other babies are supposed to do so, he caught up when he was six-and- a-half months old and, to make up for that, he started walking at nine-and-a-half months, earlier than average. My Indian babysitter, herself an experienced mother, told us that each baby has his or her own growing pace. We agreed. If Vincent decided to take a little longer to open his mouth, we could wait.

By the time we attended his 18-month check, the situation had not improved much. Vincent responded well to his name and pointed out mummy and daddy to the doctor (appropriate for his age) but when asked to stack blocks, he refused instead, he sorted them by colours and shapes (early for his age) and gestured to the small piles he had put in order.

The doctor moved on to the unavoidable questions of his speech. Any new words? Two-word sentences?

The answer was no. Vincent failed again to meet the milestone - he did not have a vocabulary of 10-20 words he did not know how to say his name, and of course he had never said a sentence. On learning that we had not paid the speech therapist a visit, the doctor seemed unhappy. "You need to have him evaluated by a speech therapist as I told you before," he said.

"Could it be that he is a little confused in a trilingual environment?" I suggested. At home, Vincent showed perfect understanding when we talked to him in both Chinese and English. His babysitter told us that she was sure Vincent understood Hindi too, even though she talked to him only in English: when she urged her own older children in Hindi to put away their toys, Vincent would grab their sleeves and show them what their mother had been telling them to do. "That doesn't explain why he can't still say mama at 18 months," the doctor said.

Over the next six months, my husband and I put off calling the agency. Perhaps he just needed a little extra time. Meanwhile, Vincent was the same happy baby, content with gesturing. We tried different things to encourage him to talk as the doctor had suggested: when he gestured for a toy or some snack, we repeated the words to him and urged him to say the word before satisfying him it didn't work as we wished - he either gave up wanting what he asked for, or, when we pushed a little harder, he showed frustration and embarrassment and became sullen. The more we tried to make him talk, the less happy he was. "Don't push him. He'll talk when he's ready," his babysitter warned us. "Vincent is perfectly fine."

Was he? We were not sure, though we secretly hoped so. And indeed Vincent started to make a few sounds that we very willingly interpreted as some kind of human language. But these sounds did nothing to convince the pediatrician. Did we see the expert? he asked at the two-year check. No, I replied we thought Vincent was making progress, so we wanted to give him time to develop on his own.

The doctor wrote down the phone number and address of the agency and told us to set up an appointment with the speech therapist right away. "To remind you again, it's a free service, you don't have to pay," the doctor said, pronouncing every word slowly. I blushed. I imagined us in his eyes, immigrant parents who struggled with money and ignored their children's welfare. I could not argue with his logic after all, he had failed to reach the standards set byscience, and we too, failed to reach the standards set by a society in which good, responsible parents are expected to follow the instructions of experts.

Later that week, I ran into an acquaintance from Bangladesh. She told me that the weight of her 14-month-old baby was off the chart so their pediatrician had put her son on to a nutrition programme where the boy had to spend eight hours every night attached to a feeding tube. "It's not like we're starving him," the woman said. She was petite, 150cm tall, and her husband was about 160cm. "I told the doctor that the chart might not be good for our baby, but she wouldn't hear it."

I thought of suggesting that she talk to someone to get her son freed from the intrusive feeding tube, but then I too found myself setting up an appointment to enroll Vincent in a special education programme called Early Intervention. As new parents, we had no more than our intuition to rely on as first-generation immigrants, the longing to be integrated became the basis of our judgment, or misjudgment. We had left our home countries and come to America, and perhaps it would have to be part of our adjustment to act against our own wills and intuition in this new culture, with its advanced science and technology.

The first step was for a psychiatrist to visit our home. After an hour of questioning and observation, she congratulated us on having a beautiful and bright son and gave us some tips that we had been already trying out in the past year: talk to Vincent in short sentences name the toys and food and ask Vincent to repeat before satisfying him encourage him when he makes progress be patient. The plan, she explained, was that we would work with Vincent at home and a speech therapist would visit him once a month in his daycare and monitor his progress.

"How many words do you think would be a realistic goal for Vincent to reach by the end of six months?" the psychiatrist asked. By that time Vincent could speak five words. I hesitated. What would be an OK number that would not put too much pressure on Vincent? "Fifty?" I tried. "How about 100? And sentences of two to three words, and I'll put down that by the end of the six months, he'll be expected to communicate with you, the parents, and daycare teachers and other kids in his class without much trouble."

I tried not to betray my anxiety. What if Vincent failed again six months later? I worried every month before the speech therapist's visit. I would count Vincent's words and despair.

By the fifth month, just when I was sure Vincent would fail the programme, events took a surprising turn. For three weeks, I was on a writer's retreat it was the first time I had left Vincent since his birth, and he became very unhappy and decided to talk. Perhaps the old wisdom that a child only starts talking when he is not contented made sense. How it started, my husband was not sure all of a sudden Vincent was counting numbers and saying alphabets, and by the time I came back, he was talking in sentences, all just in time for the next visit of the speech therapist.

That evening, we took him out to his favourite noodle house to celebrate, but watching him talk, I wondered what we were celebrating - his finally growing into a new phase of his life at his own natural pace, or being freed from a programme that we had not believed in from the start and that in the end, proved to be unnecessary?

It seemed that in the past six months, I had been worrying more about Vincent not graduating from the programme than his real speech development. Is this something that all parents have to face in the modern world - that our children have to meet more and more standards, otherwise either we, the parents,the children themselves, or perhaps both, are considered by professionals to be failing?

· Yiyun Li is the author of A Thousand Years of Good Prayers - a collection of stories to be published by Fourth Estate. She lives in Iowa City, Iowa with her husband and two sons.

Here Are 6 Things Albert Einstein Never Said - HISTORY

Einstein's birthday was March 14, 1879. He would be 137 years old. He did so much for helping people understand how the world works. His exploration changed humanity and its search for meaning. Not everyone can be as smart as Einstein, especially since it was discovered upon dissection that he had an extra fold in his brain. You can, however, think and sound like a genius simply by reading and repeating the brilliant sayings he shared over the years. Here are some of the best.

1. "Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value."

2. "Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning."

3. "Once we accept our limits, we go beyond them."

4. "We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them."

5. "The only source of knowledge is experience."

6. "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new."

7. "The difference between stupidity and genius is that genius has its limits."

8. "Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere."

9. "The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing."

10. "Imagination is more important than knowledge."

11. "If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?"

12. "The only real valuable thing is intuition."

13. "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler."

14. "I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious."

15. "It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer."

16. "Information is not knowledge."

17. "I never think of the future -- it comes soon enough."

18. "No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right a single experiment can prove me wrong."

19. "In order to succeed your desire for success should be greater than your fear for failure."

20. "Education is not the learning of the facts, but the training of the mind to think."

21. "I have tried 99 times and have failed, but on the 100th time came success."

22. "You never fail until you stop trying."

23. "Only one who devotes himself to a cause with his whole strength and soul can be a true master. For this reason mastery demands all of a person."

8 Albert Einstein’s Inventions That Massively Impacted the World

A theoretical physicist and philosopher, Albert Einstein was the most influential scientist of the 20th century. So what did Albert Einstein invent? Einstein is known mainly for his theoretical work and he didn't invent many things as such it is a lesser known fact that only one of his inventions, the Einstein Refrigerator was patented.

A theoretical physicist and philosopher, Albert Einstein was the most influential scientist of the 20th century. So what did Albert Einstein invent? Einstein is known mainly for his theoretical work and he didn’t invent many things as such it is a lesser known fact that only one of his inventions, the Einstein Refrigerator was patented.

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on 14th March, 1879. Known as the father of modern physics, Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his contribution to ‘Theoretical Physics’ in 1921. The Einstein refrigerator is an important invention by Albert Einstein. The theory of relativity proposed by Einstein is one of his important contributions to the study of the physical world.

Most of the inventions by Einstein may not be considered as inventions in the conventional sense. ‘Einstein Refrigerator’ is the only ‘real invention’ by Einstein. The history of inventions of Einstein shows that most of his inventions were theoretical concepts which laid the foundation for further research on the subject.

Einstein Refrigerator

It is an absorption refrigerator which makes use of heat for running/fueling a cooling system. Albert Einstein invented this refrigerator with the help of Leo Szilard, a former student. The Einstein Refrigerator was patented on 11th November, 1930. The main objective of Einstein and Szilard in developing this refrigerator was to make improvements to the home refrigeration technology.

The news of an accident, which took place as a result of breaking of a refrigerator seal inspired Einstein and Szilard to find a safe alternative to the technology used in those days. Specialty of the Einstein Refrigerator is that it doesn’t incorporate any moving parts.

Contribution to Theoretical Study of Nuclear Physics

One cannot say that Einstein was directly involved in the invention of the atomic bomb. The equation e=mc², formulated by Einstein, played the central role in the development of this nuclear weapon. One should however, note that Einstein was not a member of the team which developed the atomic bomb.

In fact, he had written to the US President Roosevelt urging him to build an atomic bomb before the invasive Germans attempted to do so. However, he also condemned the use of atomic bomb by USA – which led to mass destruction and bloodshed in Hiroshima, Japan.

As per the e=mc² equation, mass and energy, to a certain extent, are interchangeable.

This equation is formed of the following variables and constants.

‘E’ denotes energy
‘m’ mass
‘c’ is a constant, velocity of light.

The Special Theory of Relativity

This theory was developed by Albert Einstein in his attempt to reconcile the laws of electromagnetic field with those of classical mechanics. In 1905, Einstein presented the special theory of relativity in a paper titled ‘On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies’.

The two fundamental concepts given below form the essence of this theory.

As per the first concept, uniform motion is always relative.

According to the second concept, ‘the state of rest’ cannot be defined – it means the state is not absolute.

General Theory of Relativity

The research that was conducted on the Theory of Relativity was amongst the major accomplishments by Albert Einstein. The postulate presented by Einstein was the first in the series of explanations about ‘The General Theory of Relativity’. In this regard, an important postulate put forth by Einstein is stated as follows, “gravitational fields are equivalent to the accelerations of the frame of reference”.

This postulate can be elaborated with the help of the following example. People in an elevator (one that is descending) are unable to understand exactly which force (gravitational force or acceleration of elevator) governs their motion.

Photoelectric Effect

In one of his papers on the subject of photoelectric effect, Einstein stated that light is made up of particles. In this paper he also stated that these light particles (photons) contain energy. The energy present in photons is directly proportional to frequency of radiation.

Earlier, it was assumed by scientists that light traveled in the form of waves. The studies conducted by Einstein and discoveries made by him helped in understanding some of the basic concepts of physics. In fact, the concept of ‘quantum’ revolutionized the study of physics. In 1921, Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his research on the subject of photoelectric effect.

The relation between energy and radiation frequency is presented with the help of the formula is given below.

In this formula,
‘E’ stands for energy
‘h’ symbol denotes Planck’s constant
‘ν’ is the symbol for frequency of radiation

Einstein’s Take on Brownian Motion

In 1827, Robert Brown, a botanist from England had observed a random, agitated movement of pollen grains that were suspended in water. At the time, he was not able to explain the reason behind this kind of motion. In 1905, Albert Einstein provided an explanation on such type of random movement of suspended particles. According to Einstein, thermal molecular motions were responsible for the random movements of microscopically visible bodies suspended in a liquid.

Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

The Bose-Einstein condensate was predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924. The Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) is an entity formed as a result of coalescing of separate atoms when they are cooled to a temperature of – 459.67 °F i.e. – 273.15 °C. Einstein had predicted the BEC on the basis of quantum formulations that were provided by Satyendra Nath Bose, an Indian scientist.

However, it was in 1995 that the BEC was made for the first time. Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman played an important role in making the BEC.

Einstein’s Explanation of Blue Sky Color

The phenomenon of scattering of light which emanates from the sun is the reason behind the sky appearing blue in color. The electromagnetic field of light is responsible for inducing electric dipole moments in molecules which come in contact with light. Albert Einstein provided a detailed explanation on the phenomenon of scattering of light caused by molecules in the atmosphere.

Albert Einstein was one of the greatest scientists of his times. However, he was not enthusiastic about learning and education as a whole during his school days. He didn’t like the rigid techniques and methods of teaching used in those days. These teaching methods did not help, in any way, to raise his interest in the learning process. Einstein’s academic performance was considered as average by his teachers. However, Einstein’s curious nature and his ability to understand the complex mathematical concepts without assistance were signs of his exceptional talent. He was able to learn Euclidean geometry at the age of 12 through self-study. In his childhood days, Einstein would sit in a crowded room happily solving his mathematical problems. The first job taken up by Albert Einstein was that of a Patent Officer at the Swiss Patent Office (Bern). He started working as a Patent Officer in June, 1902 and received an annual salary of 3500 francs.

Albert Einstein’s inventions and his theories proved to be of great help to scientists of 20th century. The theory of relativity proposed by him can be considered as one of the important milestones in the history of scientific development.

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Did Einstein really say that?

Beyond his towering contribution to physics, Albert Einstein was an avid commentator on education, marriage, money, the nature of genius, music-making, politics and more. His insights were legion, as we are reminded by this month’s publication of volume 15 in The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. Even the website of the US Internal Revenue Service enshrines his words (as quoted by his accountant): “The hardest thing in the world to understand is the income tax.”

“There appears to be a bottomless pit of quotable gems to be mined from Einstein’s enormous archives,” notes Alice Calaprice, editor of The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (2011) one detects a hint of despair. Indeed, Einstein might be the most quoted scientist in history. The website Wikiquote has many more entries for him than for Aristotle, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin or Stephen Hawking, and even than Einstein’s opinionated contemporaries Winston Churchill and George Bernard Shaw.

But how much of this superabundance actually emanated from the physicist? Take this: “Astrology is a science in itself and contains an illuminating body of knowledge. It taught me many things and I am greatly indebted to it.” These lines, displayed by some astrology websites as Einstein’s, were exposed as an obvious hoax by the magazine Skeptical Inquirer in 2007. The real source was the foreword to a reissued book, Manuel d’astrologie (1965), first published by Swiss-Canadian astrologer Werner Hirsig in 1950. Einstein’s only known comment on astrology is in a 1943 letter to one Eugene Simon:

“I fully agree with you concerning the pseudo-science of astrology. The interesting point is that this kind of superstition is so tenacious that it could persist through so many centuries.”

Among the hundreds of quotes that Calaprice notes are misattributed to Einstein are many that are subtly debatable. Some are edited or paraphrased to sharpen or neaten the original. “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler” might, says Calaprice, be a compressed version of lines from a 1933 lecture by Einstein: “It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience.” More certain is the provenance of “The most incomprehensible thing about the Universe is that it is comprehensible”. That rewords a passage in a 1936 article in the Journal of the Franklin Institute: “The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility … The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle.”

Even “God does not play dice”, arguably Einstein’s most famous quote, isn’t quite his words. It derives from a letter written in German in December 1926 to his friend and sparring partner, theoretical physicist Max Born. It is published in the new volume of Einstein’s papers, in which the editors comment on its “varying translations” since the 1920s. Theirs is: “Quantum mechanics … delivers much, but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the Old One. I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not play dice.” Einstein does not use the word ‘God’ (Gott) here, but ‘the Old One’ (Der Alte). This signifies a “personification of nature”, notes physicist and Nobel laureate Leon Lederman (author of The God Particle, 1993).

Einstein’s name has also been affixed since his death to quotes from elsewhere. “The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results,” for instance, was traced by Einstein archivist Barbara Wolff to US writer Rita Mae Brown’s Sudden Death (1983). “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted,” was penned by sociologist William Bruce Cameron in his Informal Sociology (1963).

This cosmos of quotes — real, massaged and faked — speaks to Einstein’s status. More than 60 years after his death, his fame remains paramount. I feel there are at least four reasons why we are still fascinated by him.

One is that Einstein’s discoveries are elemental and existential, unifying concepts of space and time, mass and energy and forces. They shifted our picture of reality. And he made more than a stab at explaining them to the non-physicist. Hence his part-joking encapsulation of relativity to the hungry press in 1921, on his first visit to the United States: “It was formerly believed that if all material things disappeared out of the universe, time and space would be left. According to relativity theory, however, time and space disappear together with the things.”

There is also widespread empathy for Einstein’s resilience in his long struggle for security. His performance at his German school was good, but far from brilliant he disliked the school for its regimentation and eventually abandoned it. He failed to get an academic position after graduation from university, partly because he mocked his physics teachers. In 1901, although semi-starving, he recognized the value of not conforming. He wrote to his fiancée that “impudence” was his “guardian angel”. It would guide him throughout his life.

Einstein was also highly engaged politically and socially, and often in the public eye. He supported the creation of a Jewish home in Palestine, helped to establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and in 1952 was offered Israel’s presidency. Yet he had written in a speech in 1938: “My awareness of the essential nature of Judaism resists the idea of a Jewish state with borders, an army, and a measure of temporal power.” In 1933, he had publicly opposed Nazi Germany, fleeing to the United States by way of Britain, under some risk of assassination. Despite encouraging US president Franklin D. Roosevelt to build an atomic bomb in 1939, he was horrified by its use in 1945 in Japan. He spoke out against racial and ethnic discrimination in the United States. In the 1950s, he trenchantly criticized the hydrogen bomb and McCarthyism, and, right up to his death in 1955, he was targeted for deportation as a Soviet agent by FBI director J. Edgar Hoover.

Finally, there is Einstein’s ineffable wit. It is encapsulated by this aphorism, composed for a friend in 1930 (really: I’ve checked with the Einstein Archives in Jerusalem): “To punish me for my contempt of authority, Fate has made me an authority myself.”