Pivot I AM-276 - History

Pivot I AM-276 - History

Pivot

I

(AM-276: dp. 650; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 14.8 k.;
cpl. 104; a. 1 3", 4 40mm.; cl. Adm*able)

The first Pivot tAM-276) was laid down 1 July 1943 by Gulf Shipbuilding Co., Chickasaw, Ala., Iaunched 11 November 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Clara L. Prouty, and commissioned 12 July 1944.

After shakedown ended 10 September, the new mine sweeper operated with lhe Atlantic Fleet training and patrolling until sailing for thePacific early in April 1945. She transited the Panama Canal on the 10th- and after training in Hawaiian waters reached the war zone in time for mine sweeping operations in the Ryukyus soon after the conquest of Okinawa.

She supported Admiral Mitscher's Fast Carrier Task Force during the deadly strikes against Japan in July and operated in Korean waters after Japan's surrender. She returned to Okinawa late in October and resumed sweeping operations in the Ryukyus. She decommissioned at Subic Bay 6 November 1946 and remained in reserve until sold to China 27 August 1948. She served in the Chinese Navy as Yung Sho1` until 1970.

Pivot earned four battle stars for World War II service.


There are 125 census records available for the last name Pivot. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Pivot census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 54 immigration records available for the last name Pivot. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 9 military records available for the last name Pivot. For the veterans among your Pivot ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 125 census records available for the last name Pivot. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Pivot census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 54 immigration records available for the last name Pivot. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 9 military records available for the last name Pivot. For the veterans among your Pivot ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


USS Pivot (AM-276)

USS Pivot (AM-276), an Admirable-class minesweeper, was the first ship of the United States Navy named Pivot. She was built at the Gulf Shipbuilding Corporation, Chickasaw, Alabama.

Mrs. Clara L. Prouty christened Pivot on 11 November 1943.

Her trials started 12 July 1944 in the Gulf of Mexico and initial training was in the Chesapeake Bay.

After shakedown ended 10 September, the new minesweeper operated with the Atlantic Fleet training and patrolling until sailing for the Pacific early in April 1945. She transited the Panama Canal on 10 April 1945 and after training in Hawaiian waters reached the war zone in time for mine sweeping operations in the Ryukyus soon after the conquest of Okinawa.

She supported Admiral Marc Mitscher's Fast Carrier Task Force during the deadly strikes against Japan in July and operated in Korean waters after Japan's surrender. She returned to Okinawa late in October and resumed sweeping operations in the Ryukyus.

She received four battle stars for World War II.

Pivot was decommissioned 6 November 1946 at Subic Bay, Philippines. She was sold to Taiwan 27 August 1948 and renamed ROCS Yung Shou. On 1 July 1970, Yung Shou was decommissioned.


The Pivot of History

Courtesy Reuters

FIFTY years ago Halford John Mackinder delivered a lecture on "The Geographical Pivot of History" before the Royal Geographical Society in London. Supported by five diagrams, it was published by the Society in April 1904, [i] together with comments by several students of geography. Probably few who read the lecture in 1904 guessed that Figure 5, bearing the caption "The Natural Seats of Power," would become one of the most famous maps of our time. It embodied one of the most thought-provoking views of the world in the twentieth century and has exercised profound influence on foreign affairs and on history.

On his Mercator-projection Mackinder had boldly shifted the conventional European center and showed the Americas on the edge of each side of Africa, Europe and Asia. In this manner he indicated that he saw the world "as a whole." Enclosing this novel picture with an earth-girdling oval, he made his message dramatic by dividing the natural seats of power into three areas --one, a "pivot" area, wholly continental a second, an "outer crescent," wholly oceanic and a third, an "inner crescent," partly continental, partly oceanic. Mackinder had shattered the old, comfortable picture of the relations of the continents as well as complacent notions of the relations of sea power and land power. His own countrymen paid little heed, but German strategists pondered carefully what he had disclosed, and Hitler came close to bringing sea power to destruction by capturing land bases on which it rested. Today, statesmen, generals, seamen and airmen everywhere see the round world through Mackinder's eyes. And they see the Soviet Union in control of what he described as its Heartland.

When he delivered his now famous lecture Mackinder was 43 years old. Born at Gainsborough in Lincolnshire on February 15, 1861, he was the oldest son of a country doctor, Draper Mackinder, and Fanny Hewitt of Lichfield. On a wall of the Gainsborough Grammar School was a picture which greatly attracted him--a drawing of the naval engagement in March 1862 between the ironclad Union Monitor and the armored Confederate Merrimac. On the Continent at this time Bismarck was forming the German Empire by waging wars against Denmark, Austria and France and when, in September 1870, Napoleon III surrendered with his army at Sedan, the boy read the announcement that was tacked on the post-office door at Gainsborough and took home the startling news. It was the first item of public affairs that was to remain in his memory. He was an imaginative lad. His local environment in Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire aroused his interest in topography and in the physical processes

of nature. Travel stories, such as Captain Cook's voyages, induced him to prepare a discourse on Australia at the age of 12, much to the delight of his father.

He was sent to Epsom College in 1874, and thence to Oxford, where he matriculated at Christ Church in 1880. His father had hoped he would study medicine, but young Halford decided to study "the surgery of the earth." He received his B.A. in 1883, and in the same year was elected President of the Oxford Union Society. "The Historical Register of the University of Oxford" indicates that Mackinder "read" two Honor Schools, one in natural science (devoting his principal attention to biology) and a second in history he was also a Burdett-Coutts Scholar in natural science with emphasis on geology. He made a brilliant scholastic record, and with it read for the bar. International law was for him the geographical aspect of law. The Inner Temple called him to its bar in 1886, but he chose to follow the academic career.

His friend at Christ Church was Michael Sadler, with whom he served the Oxford University Extension movement for adult education during the next two years, travelling over most of the country and giving more than 600 lectures on the so-called "new geography." A syllabus on "The New Geography" was published in pamphlet form in 1886, and the attendance at his lectures grew rapidly, soon arousing the attention of prominent members of the Royal Geographical Society. One of the Honorary Secretaries, Francis Galton, requested Mackinder to put down in writing what he meant by the phrase he had used for the title, and as a result Mackinder delivered an outstanding address on January 31, 1887, "On the Scope and Methods of Geography," published in the Society's "Proceedings" in 1887. In later years Mackinder liked to recall that he was "a young revolutionary," and that "a worthy Admiral, a member of Council, who sat in the front row, kept on muttering 'damned cheek' throughout the lecture." His revolutionary idea was that the study of geography should be approached "from the human standpoint." Nine out of ten students of the subject, he said, wished "to study the world as man's environment." He proposed to assist them to do so. Galton supported his views and prophesied that "Mackinder was destined to leave his mark on geographical education." [ii]

Fortified with the M.A. in 1887, Mackinder began as Reader in Geography at Oxford with lectures "On the Principles of Geography" and on "Geography of Central Europe." He started from scratch at his first lecture (as he later enjoyed explaining), "There was an attendance of three, one a Don, who told me that he knew the geography of Switzerland because he had just read Baedeker through from cover to cover, and the other two being ladies who brought their knitting, which was not usual at lectures at that time." [iii] But his impressive method of teaching soon attracted hundreds of students and they applauded him. Mackinder's aim was to enlarge the rôle of the study of geography. Not all at Oxford shared his point of view it was alleged that the study of maps smacked of strategic and tactical ways of thinking, out of place in an abode of scholars. In the spring of 1892 he visited the United States and called at Harvard, Princeton and Johns Hopkins in order to inquire as to their geographical teachings. At that time he spoke to a large audience of teachers in Philadelphia.

And Oxford, indeed, has a way of finding a place for great talent. Mackinder was awarded a "studentship" (Fellowship) at Christ Church in 1892, for a term of three years, and largely as a result of his successful extension work at Reading the Dean of Christ Church opened a college there. Mackinder was chosen to serve as Principal. An unemployed history teacher, W. M. Childs, knocked at Mackinder's door for a job and became his successor in 1903, when Mackinder left for London. Reading College was later raised to University rank, and Dr. Childs, commemorating his predecessor's 11 years of pioneer work there, has written of him: "He was a talker, convincing and provocative. He had a way of blending dreams and hard sense, subtlety and simplicity, and he never seemed to know when he passed from the one to the other. He made some opponents as a leader in stark earnest is bound to do. He sometimes ploughed ahead leaving a wake of troubled waters, and he certainly gave the rest of us plenty to think and talk about. Masterful, he yet made us partners." [iv]

Mackinder shared the aim of all great teachers--not only to lecture himself, but to train teachers. He wanted a school of geography. As President of the geography section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science he argued for it, pointing out the rise of the German schools of geography. The London School of Economics was founded at this time and Mackinder took a teaching post there in addition to those at Oxford and Reading. Financial support by the Royal Geographical Society finally made possible in 1899 the establishment at Oxford of the first School of Geography with Mackinder as its Director. Along with all of this he was mountain-climbing in the Alps and Africa (making the first daring ascent of Mt. Kenya), and in 1900 contested Warwick as a Liberal candidate for Parliament. In this endeavor he was defeated. But at the end of the year 1903, he had been honored with the Silver Medal from the Scottish Geographical Society for promoting the study of geography, and had been appointed the Director of the new London School of Economics.

His first lengthy book, "Britain and the British Seas," had appeared in 1902. The introductory chapter included a photograph of the globe, in order that Britons might see the true picture of the Atlantic Ocean, and his topics included economic and military strategy. The preface read:

The idea of this book was first suggested to me by the needs of some foreign students visiting Britain. My aim has been to present a picture of the physical features and conditions of a very definite natural region, and to trace their influence upon the human societies dwelling within it. Britain is so small, and is known in such detail, that it has been possible to attempt a complete geographical synthesis. The phenomena of topographical distribution relating to many classes of fact have been treated, but from a single standpoint and on a uniform method.

An autograph written nearly 20 years later adds a lively footnote:

The occasion of the writing of this book is correctly stated in the preface. The reason of its writing was that the author was caned as a boy at school for drawing maps instead of writing Latin prose, and that for thirty years afterwards he thought visually and therefore geographically. In the end the impulse to write what he saw mastered him. Voilà tout.

The two principal features of his famous lecture of 1904 that decades later provoked closer study, and great controversy, were the theory of "closed space" and the conception of the "pivot area."

From the present time forth, in the post-Columbian age, [he said] we shall again have to deal with a closed political system, and none the less that it will be one of world-wide scope. Every explosion of social forces, instead of being dissipated in a surrounding circuit of unknown space and barbaric chaos, will be sharply reëchoed from the far side of the globe, and weak elements in the political and economic organism of the world will be shattered in consequence. There is a vast difference of effect in the fall of a shell into an earthwork and its fall amid the closed spaces and rigid structures of a great building or a ship. Probably some half-consciousness of this fact is at last diverting much of the attention of statesmen in all parts of the world from territorial expansion to the struggle for relative efficiency.

It appears to me, therefore, that in the present decade we are for the first time in a position to attempt, with some degree of completeness, a correlation between the larger geographical and the larger historical generalizations. For the first time we can perceive something of the real proportion of features and events on the stage of the whole world, and may seek a formula which shall express certain aspects, at any rate, of geographical causation in universal history. If we are fortunate, that formula should have a practical value as setting into perspective some of the competing forces in current international politics. . . . I propose this evening describing those physical features of the world which I believe to have been most coercive of human action, and presenting some of the chief phases of history as organically connected with them, even in the ages when they were unknown to geography. . . . Man and not nature initiates, but nature in large measure controls. My concern is with the general physical control, rather than the causes of universal history. It is obvious that only a first approximation to truth can be hoped for. I shall be humble to my critics.

Mackinder then proceeded to present his historical analysis, in order to explain the concepts inscribed in the legend of his Figure 5. He wished especially to make clear the idea of the constant pressure upon the rest of the world originating from the "pivot area." "It was under the pressure of external barbarism that Europe achieved her civilization," he declared. "I ask you, therefore, for a moment to look upon Europe and European history as subordinate to Asia and Asiatic history, for European civilization is, in a very real sense, the outcome of the secular struggle against Asiatic invasion." He held that, "The most remarkable contrast in the political map of modern Europe is that presented by the vast area of Russia occupying half the Continent and the group of smaller territories tenanted by the Western Powers."

With the aid of four other diagrams, Mackinder analyzed his thesis, maintaining that "all the settled margins of the Old World sooner or later felt the expansive force of mobile power originating in the steppe." In summary, his argument ran somewhat as follows:

A certain persistence of geographical relationship becomes evident as one examines the broader currents of history. Is not the pivot region of the world's politics that vast area of Euro-Asia which is inaccessible to ships, but in antiquity lay open to the horse-riding nomads and is today about to be covered with a network of railways? Here were the conditions of a mobility of military and economic power of a far-reaching character. And now that Russia has replaced the Mongol Empire, these conditions remain. Russian pressure on Finland, on Scandinavia, on Poland, on Turkey, on Persia, on India and on China replaces the raids of the Mongol steppemen. In the world at large Russia occupies the central strategical position which in Europe is held by Germany. She can strike on all sides and be struck from all sides, save the north. The full development of her modern railway mobility is merely a matter of time. Nor is it likely that any possible social revolution will alter her essential relations to the great geographical limits of her existence. Wisely recognizing the fundamental limits of her power, her rulers have parted with Alaska for it is as much a law of policy for Russia to own nothing overseas as for Britain to be supreme on the ocean.

Outside the pivot area, in a great inner crescent, he continued, are Germany, Austria, Turkey, India and China, and in an outer crescent, Britain, South Africa, Australia, the United States, Canada and Japan. A tipping of the balance of power in favor of the pivot state, resulting in its expansion over the marginal lands of Euro-Asia, would permit it to use the vast continental resources for fleet-building, and the empire of the world would then be within its grasp. This might happen if Germany were to ally herself with Russia.

My contention, said Mackinder, emphasizing that he spoke as a geographer, is that particular combinations of power are likely to rotate around the pivot state. This state is always likely to be great but its mobility is limited, compared with that of the surrounding marginal and insular countries. The actual balance of political power at any given time is, he continued, the product of geographical conditions, both economic and strategic, and also of the relative number, virility, equipment and organization of the competing peoples. In proportion as these quantities are accurately estimated are we likely to adjust differences without the crude resort to arms. And the geographical quantities in the calculation are more measurable and more nearly constant than the human quantities. Hence we should expect to find that our formula applied equally to past history and to present politics.

The discussion which followed the reading of the paper at the meeting of the Society is interesting and brings forward names and ideas which were to become noteworthy. Sir Thomas Holdich remarked on "the absolutely immeasurable cost of geographical ignorance." Twenty years later this was to become a favored quotation of the German geopoliticians. Mr. L. S. Amery, subsequently First Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary of State for India, concluded a long and prophetic speech with the observation that the controversy between "the relative merits of railways and ships as a means of mobility would be altered by the use of the air as a means of locomotion," and added that "those people who have the industrial power and the power of invention and of science will be able to defeat all others." (The Wright Brothers had flown their plane at Kitty Hawk in December 1903, while Mackinder had noted in his lecture that Christendom possessed the widest possible mobility of power, short of winged mobility). Mr. D. G. Hogarth joined Mr. Amery in his objection to Mackinder's conception of "Graeco-Slavs," and raised the question as to whether Mackinder believed that a "stationary state of affairs" was being developed in the pivot area. Did the lecturer mean--he asked--that the great region would no longer send its populations down into the marginal countries? Mackinder--only partly answering the question--maintained his view that Russia was the heir of Greece, and "a great stationary population was being developed in the steppe lands--a revolution in the world that had to be faced." He emphasized that his aim was not to predict a great future for this or that country but to make a geographical formula into which any political balance might be fitted. His belief was that the future of the world depended on "the balance of power between the marginal region and the expansive internal forces."

Tall, erect and distinguished, Halford J. Mackinder was a figure of the kind on whom other writers enjoy letting their imaginations play. The small dining club called "Coefficients" which he attended was described by H. G. Wells in his "Experiment in Autobiography" and appears in that queer, confused novel, "The New Machiavelli," as the Pentagram Circle. Besides the Webbs, Haldane and Sir Edward Grey, Leo Maxse, editor of the National Review, belonged to this brilliant group. Leo Maxse had been given the National Review by his father, Admiral Maxse, for what sport he cared to have with it. He turned it into one of the great reviews of the time. The Admiral, incidentally, provided the model for the central figure of Meredith's political novel, "Beauchamp's Career." Mackinder published in this magazine (1905) another important article, "Man-power as a Measure of National and Imperial Strength," which he pointed out should be read as a supplement to his "Geographical Pivot of History." The Army Course for the training of officers for higher appointments on the Administrative Staff of the Army, instituted at that time at the London School of Economics by Haldane as Secretary of War, was known as "Haldane's Mackindergarten."

The attraction of those who sought to imagine the lineaments of the figures of power at the time was returned by Mackinder in his own desire for an active rôle in British politics. He broke with the Liberal Party on the subject of free trade, when Joseph Chamberlain made the issue one of immediate controversy. Apparently L. S. Amery was responsible for bringing Mackinder over to the side of those who favored some form of imperial preference. In his recent book he says, "I did succeed, after several talks, in persuading Mackinder. Not to his personal advantage, I fear, for he would almost certainly, if he had stayed with his party, have risen to high office in the 1906 Parliament." [v] Mackinder contributed to the "Lectures on Empire" (1906-7), edited by his old friend, M. E. Sadler, a paper titled "On Thinking Imperially"--a slogan propagated by the Nazi geopoliticians two decades later.

Mackinder resigned as Director of the School of Economics on becoming a Liberal Unionist candidate at a bye-election for Hawick Burghs in 1909, remaining, however, as lecturer and later becoming Professor of Geography. This second attempt to enter Parliament was also unsuccessful. But in January 1910 he was elected for the Camlachie division of Glasgow, retaining his seat at the general election in December of the same year by a narrow margin, and holding it until defeated in 1922. Mr. Amery's retrospective verdict that, whatever the cause, Mackinder never quite made the mark in Parliament once expected of him, is incontestable. His greatness was of a different order-- as a counsellor for general staffs, as Sir Alfred Zimmern has remarked, not as a practising politician. And in the meantime, Mackinder lectured--without notes, but with many sketch maps --to thousands of students who crowded to hear him. Inspirational to his appreciative students, he repeatedly defined his outlook: "Every event takes place both in space and in time, so it has both a geographical and an historical aspect."

The book for which he is best known appeared in 1919--"Democratic Ideals and Reality." It was built on the thesis of 1904, but the "pivot area" became the now famous "Heartland area." The book was intended to reach the peace negotiators at Versailles, and it included the dramatic and often quoted (and misquoted) slogans:

Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland:

Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island:

Who rules the World-Island commands the World.

It was a warning, not a prediction, written "for the sons of light against the black forces," and "enlisting geography as an aid to statecraft and strategy," as two reviewers put it at the time. [vi] Had the German General Staff elected to hold on the Western Front in 1914, and to strike with full force on the Eastern, Germany might then have gained the Heartland and she came close to winning it in any event. Mackinder was profoundly concerned that the victorious Allies appreciate the necessity of constructing an effective barrier of independent nations between Germany and Russia. But only in Germany was the significance of Mackinder's warning understood. After the publication of his book, in the autumn of 1919, he was afforded an opportunity to function briefly as British High Commissioner in South Russia, then under the control of Denikin. He was knighted, upon his return in 1920, and thereafter played a valuable, if inconspicuous, part in Empire Affairs, being made a member of the Privy Council in 1925.

The major center of studies of geography and strategy in the Germany of the Weimar Republic was Major General Karl Haushofer's school of Geopolitik in Munich. Essentially, Haushofer's doctrine was a rationalization of wars of conquest. Assuming the necessity of "autarky," or national self-sufficiency, it proceeded to the idea of Lebensraum and the right of a powerful state to acquire whatever territory it felt it needed to attain self-sufficiency. In English and American literature it is still stated that Haushofer did not discover Mackinder until 1925. This is not quite correct. Returning as a defeated general from the First World War, Haushofer was made professor of anthropogeography at Munich, and in 1921, in a booklet under the innocent title, "The Japanese Empire in Its Geographical Development," he analyzed Mackinder's theory of closed space, and used it as the basis for a theory of German encirclement. Lifting one sentence from the context of the British geographer's lecture which had described a situation existing in the "mediaeval age," Haushofer quoted: "Thus the settled people of Europe lay gripped between two pressures--that of the Asiatic nomads from the East, and on the other three sides that of the pirates from the sea." It was Haushofer's opinion that such a situation still prevailed in 1920, and he proceeded to draw on the cover of his booklet a "suggestive" map of Japan, with "mutilated" Germany in comparison. On the map he drew geopolitical power lines showing Japan's prospective southern expansion and an arrow pointing to Hawaii. Haushofer referred again to Mackinder's 1904 lecture in a book of which he was co-author titled, "Concerning the Battle for Liberty in South-East Asia," in 1923, and the following year he perverted Mackinder's ideas more definitely in a redrawn map in his work, "The Geopolitics of the Pacific Ocean." He coupled this with a resentful and fatalistic statement about the "900 million southeast Asiatics" who were Germany's "companions of disaster." Together with Germany, he said, they must struggle against "our merciless economic and political enemies and oppressors." [vii] Haushofer's "reversed" map attempted to show how the land-locked Powers were allegedly put under pressure by the seafaring Powers. His grand strategy for Germany was therefore to break through this encirclement by forming a great Eurasian bloc with Russia and Japan.

When the sensational pact between Nazi Germany and the U.S.S.R. was signed on August 23, 1939, The New Statesman and Nation published an article discussing the way in which Mackinder's concept of the "geographical pivot of history" had been utilized by General Haushofer to help bring about the Nazi-Soviet pact. [viii] Haushofer, who applauded the Soviet-German agreement "as a triumph of geopolitical statesmanship," retorted in his monthly contribution to the Zeitschrift für Geopolitik, October 1939, "honor-bound," he said to explain:

In the last period of preparation [before the war] there occurred what Sir Halford Mackinder not only in 1904, but also in 1919 ("Democratic Ideals and Reality") had warned against: "the vital necessity of Germany and Russia joining forces." As early as 1913, in Dai Nihon, I had called for the logical supplement of this pact, namely, for the alliance of both [Russia and Germany] with Japan, in order to create a giant transcontinental bloc capable of counterbalancing the two great Anglo-Saxon powers. . . .

The New Statesman calls "these ideas hard and realistic" and blames us "for purloining them, to a considerable extent, from the intellectual arsenal of British imperialism." Where does world history say that one may not learn from the enemy? Fas est ab hoste doceri (It is a duty to learn from the enemy) was already laid down as a rule of statesmanship by the ancient Romans. . . . Russia and Germany both lost the war because they fought on opposite sides. It took a long time, a much longer time than Sir Halford Mackinder had expected, for the Germans and Russians to find that out.

The pact created an increasing interest among Americans in Mackinder, and in Haushofer as well. In his 1904 lecture Mackinder had observed that "the development of the vast potentialities of South America might have a decisive influence upon the system. They might strengthen the United States, or, on the other hand, if Germany were to challenge the Monroe Doctrine successfully, they might detach Berlin from what I may perhaps describe as a pivot policy." The Nazi challenge to the Monroe Doctrine grew to such an extent that in the summer of 1940, by a virtually unanimous vote of both houses of Congress, the principles laid down in the Monroe message of 1823 were reaffirmed and embodied in the wider idea of the self-defense of the Western Hemisphere by all the American republics.

With the extension of the Nazi shadow over Europe, maps illustrating Mackinder's Heartland conception began to appear in American publications, and Americans became aware of the importance of global thinking and the need of maps for the air age showing the skyways over the top of the world and the distances of American cities from other parts of the globe. This interest was redoubled when Japan formally joined the Berlin-Rome axis on September 27, 1940 and global thinking became a matter of crucial immediacy when the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, instigated and forecast by Haushofer in 1921, took place on December 7, 1941. In a lengthy article, supported by a map showing the line of attack on Pearl Harbor, Haushofer then rejoiced to find his own geopolitical prognostication confirmed. "Thus," he declared, "the forced defense of the much-plagued marginal spaces of the Old World in the triangle of Berlin-Rome-Tokyo by the 'pirates of the sea and the steppe' was widened to a global theater of war." [ix] It is evident that the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was implicit in the Tokyo-Berlin bargain of September 1940. [x] Thus incited by Germany, Japan stormed south. "The tempo of affairs has quickened," observed Mackinder, "and the fields of action have widened in a single generation as by a miracle." The greatest and fiercest struggle in the history of mankind ensued. [xi]

In 1943 Sir Halford was asked whether he considered that his strategical concept of a Heartland had lost any of its significance under the conditions of modern warfare. He furnished his answer in the pages of this review, in a significant article entitled "The Round World and the Winning of the Peace." [xii] In it he reiterated his faith in the Heartland idea as "more valid and useful today than it was either 20 or 40 years ago." The concept did not, he granted, admit of precise definition on the map: enough to say that the territory of the U.S.S.R. was equivalent to the Heartland--with the exception that the Soviet Union was bulwarked still more by the area which he called "Lenaland," the territory drained by the great river Lena which flows northward from Mongolia to the Arctic Ocean. In short, the Heartland provided "a sufficient physical basis for strategic thinking." The Soviet Union, he saw, would emerge from the Second World War the greatest land power on the globe.

He lived to see the war brought to a close by the explosion of atomic bombs, but not long enough to write about it. In 1943 he did not feel that air power had revolutionized military strategy. "The conquest of the air gave the world's unity a new significance for all mankind," he said but he agreed with those airmen who noted that the effect of airpower depends upon the efficiency of its ground organization: "It can only be said that no adequate proof has yet been presented that air fighting will not follow the long history of all kinds of warfare by presenting alternations of offensive and defensive tactical superiority, meanwhile effecting few permanent changes in strategical conditions."

In his summing up, as always, he thought in metaphors. There was the Heartland, he said there was the North Atlantic basin-- what we have come to call the Atlantic Community and there were two other great strategic areas--"the mantle of vacancies," the tropical forests of South America and Africa to be subdued to agriculture and populated, and the Monsoon lands of India and China. The problem of the winning of the peace, he concluded, was the problem of finding a balance among them.

Two problems were concrete--Germany and Russia. The former could be controlled, he hoped, by "embankments of power"--the North Atlantic basin on one side and the Heartland on the other. To defeat Germany's global aspirations, he declared, there must be effective and lasting coöperation among America, Britain and France--the first needed for depth of defense, the second as the moated forward stronghold, the third as the defensible bridgehead. Mackinder hoped that Russia would be friendly but however that might be, the tremendous new strategic fact was that the Heartland--"the greatest natural fortress on earth"--was now manned by a garrison sufficient in number and quality to close its gates to the German invader. In his 1904 lecture he had noted that "Russia's pressure on Finland, on Scandinavia, on Poland, on Turkey, on Persia, on India, and on China replaces the centrifugal raids of the Mongol steppemen." In 50 years the wheel has turned full cycle.

Ten years before his death, in 1937, in an eloquent address entitled "Music of the Spheres," Sir Halford had made this observation:

The imagination of mankind, massed by the new instantaneous mobility of thought and playing on the stern inelasticity of the globe has been panicked into rival ideologies, "communist" to embrace all the world in a single community, and "nationalist" to find safety in the self-sufficiency of each of a number of regional communities.

This remained his picture of the political problem. In the search for freedom men's minds will return again and again to his great pictures, facts and prophecies.

[i] Geographical Journal, London, April 1904, p. 421-44.

[ii] Cf. J. F. Unstead, "H. J. Mackinder and New Geography," Geographical Journal, 1949.

[iii] Geographical Journal, 1921, p. 378.

[iv] "Making a University: An Account of the University Movement at Reading," by William Macbride Childs. London: Dent, 1933.

[v] "My Political Life: Vol. I, England Before the Storm, 1896-1914," by Leopold S. Amery. London: Hutchinson, 1953.

[vi] Geographical Review, New York, 1919-20.

[vii] Cf. "Haushofer and the Pacific," by Hans W. Weigert. Foreign Affairs, July 1942.

[viii] "Hitler's World Revolution." The New Statesman and Nation, August 26, 1939.

[ix] Petermanns Geogr. Mitteilungen, 1942, No. 1.

[x] Cf. William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, "The Undeclared War, 1940-1941." New York: Harper, 1953.

[xi] Cf. Charles Kruszewski, "Germany's Lebensraum," The American Political Science Review, October 1940, p. 964-975 Joseph S. Roucek, "Political Geography and Geopolitics," "Twentieth Century Political Thought," New York: Philosophical Library, 1946, p. 313-336 George H. Sabine, "A History of Political Theory" (revised edition), New York: Holt, 1950, Lebensraum, p. 891-7.


History made at I.S. 276: First graduation

An I.S. 276 student receives a diploma from Principal Terri Ruyter June 21 in the first commencement at the school. Downtown Express photo by Yoon Seo Nam

By KAITLYN MEADE |When parents enrolled their sixth graders in the brand new school at 55 Battery Place, they acknowledged that they were taking a gamble — one which undoubtedly paid off, if the warmth of Friday’s graduation ceremony was anything to go by.

Cameras flashed and words of wisdom were dispensed, in the time-honored tradition of all graduations, as the first eighth grade class walked across the stage of I.S. 276. The Battery Park City School opened its doors in 2010, one year after the first kindergarten class started at Tweed Courthouse. The K-8 was built in response to a desperate need for Downtown school seats, but it quickly grew into one of Lower Manhattan’s most beloved schools.

“Three years ago most of us came together for a journey,” said Principal Terri Ruyter. “Some of you joined us en route.” She reminded the gathered assembly that the best journeys are not always easy, but they are challenging and inspiring

“We took a risk coming to an unknown, half finished school…” said Jack Sarmiento, one of the two student speakers at the ceremony.

The other student speaker, Sophia Penney, said that she had been anticipating a terrible first day, when her parents moved Downtown midway through her sixth grade year.

“OK, I’ll admit it, I’ve only been here for two and a half years,” she joked. “But honestly, I feel like I’ve been here forever… I am so proud to be graduating from this school.”

“Terri knew how awkward my first day could have been and so she had a welcoming party set up for me,” she said. “I think that’s why this place is so great. We all had welcoming parties, even if we didn’t know it.”

Penney will be attending The Beacon School in the fall. Several of the c62 graduates made it into top schools such as Stuyvesant High School, and many of them will be attending the Financial District’s Millennium High School.

“They kept saying you’re taking a big chance on a new school like this, but look at it… This was our first choice,” said Kate Gyllenhaal and Umit Celebi at the reception afterword, whose daughter Ajda is an I.S. 276 grad and will be attending Millennium in September.

“We used to drive by, going, ‘Will it be finished in time?’” added Celebi.

He also said it was amazing how quickly the school had put itself on the map in athletics, despite starting out with teams composed only of sixth graders and a coach, Jon Carey, who noted that the school’s first year was also his own first year teaching.

From basketball games against “bearded eighth graders” to the entire grade taking a trip to the Frost Valley YMCA camp in the Catskills, many students and teachers spoke fondly of the unity of being a small school, just starting out.

“The thing I learned about this school is that it is one of the few places in the city where you’re a part of a family, no matter who you are, inside and out,” said Gabriel Gonzales, standing with his beaming parents, Yelitza and Antonio, at the reception.

Gabriel will be attending Brooklyn Tech next year, bolstered by I.S. 276 school’s use of technology and computers in classrooms.

“I think everyone loves this school,” said Yelitza. “Terri is the best… The school is a big family, more than a regular one.

Cameras and phones aplenty at I.S. 276’s graduation Friday. Downtown Express photo by Yoon Seo Nam Downtown Express photo by Yoon Seo Nam Many in the graduating class of 62 students are staying Downtown at either Stuyvesant or Millennium high schools. Downtown Express photo by Yoon Seo Nam


Interview: Chris Cocalis of Pivot Cycles

Chris Cocalis launched Pivot Cycles in 2007, after leading Titus Cycles since 1991. He began his career in the bicycle business in Chicago during the early 1980s, working in the retail channel while racing BMX throughout high school. He started racing BMX professionally during his time at Arizona State University, where he majored in accounting, and helped run two successful bike shops in Phoenix. BikeRadar’s Marcus Farley spoke with Cocalis about his background, Pivot Cycles and why he thinks Pivot bikes are still at the cutting edge.

In 1988, Cocalis attended the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado and achieved his certification as a United States Cycling Federation Certified professional mechanic. By 1989 he’d moved into manufacturing, and started Titus Cycles in 1991.

His expertise in custom fitting and his reputation for quality, innovation, and customer service grew Titus into its position as one of the premier high-end brands in the cycling industry. Over the next 10 years, his designs were sold to and manufactured for some of the largest companies in the industry.

In addition to his innovative bicycle designs, he has been an industry pioneer in flexible manufacturing, tooling design, and cutting edge materials engineering. He has done testing and development for Miller Welding Corporation, Alyn Corp, and Gore Industries. He also serves on the component development team for Shimano, with many of the new features on Shimano’s 2008 XTR directly attributed to his input.

In July of 2006, he sold his interest in Titus Cycles to Vyatek Sports, who’d been co-owners since 2001. But after a short hiatus, he’s back designing mountain bikes.

BikeRadar: Tell us about your background how did you get into making bicycles?

Chris Cocalis: I started BMX racing about the age of 13 and by the time I was 16, I was a little too big for the BMX bikes of the time. I was going through several frames a season, as were some of the other guys on our team so I designed a new “pro length” BMX frame and had a company in California build it for me. That was my first start with frame design.

In 1987, I really got into mountain biking. I had several Fat Chance’s. Chris Chance was a truly inspiring frame builder and one of my favorite builders to this day. I was really into the geometry and technical aspects of the frames. It was a great time to be involved because it was the true birth of the technology side of the sport.

I had a friend teach me to braze and in 1988 I built my first elevated chainstay mountain bike frame. We even had a test in Mountain Bike Action in an article called “Bikes of the Future” alongside two Mantis frames and the Nishiki Alien. That was my start with frame building.

In 1990, I started designing cranks and bottom brackets. My bottom bracket design featured an oversize titanium spindle and two drive side bearings pushed out as close to the crank arms as possible for increased stiffness. The design was adopted by TNT racing and was featured on Specialized S-Works bikes from 1991-1995. My crank was called the Cyborg which I licensed to AC racing. That crank was used on the highest end Diamond Back bikes of the time.

In 1991, I founded Titus Cycles with two partners. I have a 17-year history that would take the entire interview, but most riders are familiar with Titus as the company I built and the products I designed. In July of 2006, I sold my interest in Titus to Vyatek Sports, took some time off and then started Pivot Cycles and BH Bikes USA in July of 2007.

Has it been exciting or nerve shredding setting up a new brand?

It’s been super exciting. It’s hard to believe the support we’ve gotten from the dealers, and riders. It’s been overwhelming in a very positive way. I’ve made my home in our great sport and it’s just awesome to see that people have welcomed me back with open arms.

What’s the business structure at Pivot – who’s involved and in what capacity?

We’re a small company with a lot of bike experience. Our sales manager, John Bradley, has over 30 years of experience in product management and sales. He has worked at Trek, Avid, and Orbea serving as everything from product manager, to product director, to sales manager and he is an important part of our sales team along with Adam Vincent and Rob Aguero who are also passionate cyclists with a lot of industry experience.

On the product development side, we have Kevin Tisue, Bill Kibler, and of course Dave Weagle. Kevin is a talented mechanical engineer with a background in composites. He helped us launch MaxM components at Titus and was involved with me in the design of the Carbon Racer X, among other bikes. He also holds several seat post patents.The linkage seat post head design that Race Face uses is his.

Bill Kibler is a design and manufacturing expert with a long history in cycling and auto racing, and Dave Weagle is the inventor of the dw-link and many other cool cycling related inventions. We have about five others (including my wife, Cindy) that make this company go and a small group of investors, all of which are cycling fanatics.

What advice would you give to someone setting up their own bike company? Has your accounting qualification helped?

I can’t adequately relay what seems like millions of details that it takes to set up a bike company. Let’s just say that it’s been a lifetime in the making and I am still learning something new every day.

As far as the accounting side goes, I was in the engineering program for close to three years before finishing up with an accounting degree so I have some book engineering and certainly a lot of hands on engineering, design and fabrication experience as well. I vastly prefer the creative side, but I am very dialed in on the numbers. We run a pretty tight ship in that regard I handle the costing, and forecasting and Cindy is the CFO. She has a very strong accounting background and really keeps that side of things going so that I can focus on the bikes, which is my true passion.

Why should people buy a Pivot bicycle?

There are a lot of great full suspension bikes out there but the Pivot’s are truly at the next level. It’s not often that someone in my position gets the chance to start with a completely fresh canvas. I spent a lot of time riding different bikes during my time off and took a long hard look at where we (as a sport) are at today, the advancements in suspension designs, and where we need to go in the future. My time off between Titus and Pivot was well spent and the Mach 4 and Mach 5 (along with the 429) are the result.

I have always looked at things with a healthy touch of paranoia (if there is such a thing). There is always something better coming around the corner and if we aren’t constantly evolving and keeping ahead then we shouldn’t be doing this.

I’m the first to find fault in a product and demand better whether it’s someone else’s or my own. The Pivot bikes are a result of riding the best bikes made, recognizing the positive traits and the weakness’ and designing something better. It’s everything from the suspension design, geometry, frame stiffness, proper fit, chain line, durability, stiffness and so on. We pay attention to the details and are very proud to have riders enjoy the product of our passion and hard work.

The Titus bikes used the Horst link, but you’re using the DW-link for the Mach 4 and Mach 5. Why the change to a different suspension type?

It really comes down to the details and where you can take a design. Horst Link bikes can do amazing things. They are active under braking and active under pedaling plus can be built light, but there are limits. Any 4-bar is constrained to a relatively fixed travel arc. You can change the arc with the pivot locations, but it’s still a constant arc.

With a dual link bike, we have greater flexibility to change that arc at different points in the travel to optimize certain characteristics at certain points. If we wanted to, it would be easy to just about perfectly match the characteristics of my previous four-bar designs, but the DW-link allows us to take things further. With the DW-link, we can make the bike pedal better and get increased traction in the beginning part of the travel as well as achieving much better square edge bump performance then a Horst-Link bike. We still maintain that active feel while keeping braking forces out of the equation.

The other big thing that has always been a goal of mine is to increase frame stiffness. With the Horst-Link it is very difficult to make as laterally stiff a rear triangle. I think we did the best job possible at Titus, but it still does not match that of our DW-link Pivots. The one-piece rear triangle and close proximity of the upper and lower links really makes for a stiff and light rear end.

The DW-link aspect brings something truly unique to the table. All other innovations aside, DW-link designs don’t squat or bob under power and that’s a big deal. It’s the first design that really takes a riders mass and position into account. I’ve typically focused my efforts on the travel path, linkage rate, chain torque effect and various other driveline and braking forces on the suspension to get the bike to behave the way I want it to behave.

That’s all very important, but it can all go out the window when a rider stands up and throws all his or her weight and power into the suspension. The shock companies came up with “platform” damping to help keep this at bay. It works and makes a lot of not so good bikes work pretty good, but even the most knowledgeable shock engineers realize that solving one problem with shock valving creates other problems in the way of reduced small bump sensitivity and traction.

Dave Weagle takes a different approach by placing the linkages in a position that neutralizes the effects of the rider’s mass movements (anti-squat) and allows us to run much lighter shock valving so that the shock works better in bumps of all shapes and sizes while still achieving incredible pedaling performance. Also, Dave wanted me to mention that in addition to making you a faster, better rider, the DW-link will also make you more attractive to the opposite sex. What more could you ask for?

How closely did you work with Dave Weagle on the suspension? How does it differ from the Iron Horse and Ibis suspensions?

I work very closely with Dave on the suspension designs. I have certain parameters in mind when working on a new bike in regards to shock choice, ride characteristics, leverage rates and other key areas of the design and performance. I relay these to Dave and he calculates the exact pivot point placement to achieve the optimum anti-squat characteristics. I understand what anti-squat does and basically how it works, but Dave is truly the master of his domain when it comes to laying it all out and making it work.

Regarding the other DW-link designs on the market, I can tell you that they all have unique ride characteristics. As I mentioned above, I work closely with Dave on what we are looking for out of the design. The other DW-link brands on the market have their own unique vision on how they want the suspension to feel and how they design the rest of the bike. All DW-link bikes do share the positive traits of anti squat. They don’t bob under power and they get great traction on climbs.

Your aluminum frames are undoubtedly beautiful looking, but are they strong in all sections?

We designed the Pivots to be one of, if not the, stiffest and strongest bikes in each respective category. Bigger is almost always better and stronger when it comes to tubes, pivots and bearings. The core of the Mach 4, 5 and 429 is our 92mm wide hollow cold forged bottom bracket and main pivot assembly. The wider bottom bracket doesn’t place the cranks out any further, but it does allow for a larger diameter bottom bracket shell with the bearings inside instead of hanging off the edge of the shell.

The bigger internal bearing bottom bracket shell means we can make the parts lighter, stiffer, and, of course, stronger. The 92mm shell gives us more room to utilize a larger diameter down tube which also increases strength. In addition, the wide shell gives us more space for a wider DW-link and therefore better stiffness and longevity from the main pivots.

The zero-stack style head tube is larger then a standard 1.125-inch, which increases strength and the one piece rear triangle uses large diameter tubes and cold forged parts to keep it strong in all the right places. So, yes, the bikes are strong in all sections.

Any reason you didn’t go for carbon instead?

I have a fair amount of experience working in carbon and think that it’s a fantastic material. There is a lot of development going on in the world of composites and its application in the suspension world. Most of the companies offering carbon models are not seeing a big weight decrease, if any, from their carbon fiber frames. They claim the big benefit as being greater stiffness, but that comes from the size of the tubes and not the material.

Others that do get the weight down suffer in durability and/or frame stiffness. I have ideas on how we can achieve both, but carbon fiber development takes a longer time and should not be rushed. We’ll have an incredible carbon model when the time is right but don’t hold your breath for 2009!

The Pivot bikes were conceived in Arizona, and were getting great reviews at Interbike, but have you done any testing in more muddy conditions?

Actually, good mud clearance and pivot durability were key goals when designing the bikes. If you look closely, the DW-link is way forward of where most pivots are located. On the Mach 5 and 429, we stiffen the rear triangle with the uprights so there is no need for a brake bridge up top and mud is free to pass through.

All the bikes are designed to easily clear 2.35+ size tires making them some of the more open, mud shedding designs on the market. Both the DW-link bearings and the XTR bottom bracket bearings are fully sealed and housed inside the frame instead of sitting out in the elements.

From the test results, we feel that the bikes have better mud clearance then our competitors in mud (Santa Cruz, Intense, Titus, Specialized, etc.). In addition to the prototype testing, we have 40 Pivot bikes on our demo truck that tours the US, most of which has had a VERY wet spring. The bikes have been put through some seriously muddy rides.

Other than some brake pads and some cable housing replacements, none of the bikes have required a tear down or servicing of the bottom bracket or DW-link area. We use soapy water and a light washing with a hose and have experienced zero issues.

You have a dealer list for the US when are you planning to have a dealer network worldwide?

We’re partnered with BH Bikes in Spain. They have hired a sales manager for Pivot and we will have a dedicated Pivot sales force for Spain and France. We’re getting ready to launch there next month and then we will be meeting with distributors at Eurobike for many of the other European markets. BH has a sales force for the UK so that will most likely be one of our next markets after we get things going in Spain and France.

How close are you to delivering the 29ers? Any other models in the pipeline?

The 2009 29ers will begin shipping in early July, and we have a new 167mm travel bike that we will be unveiling in September at Interbike. It will have some new innovative things that have not been seen before.

What did you design on the new Shimano XTR, and what’s it like working with them?

I can’t take personal credit for any one thing on the latest XTR because there were a few of us from outside Shimano that were involved. I’m sure that some of the others had similar feedback. I did provide a long list of details that I felt could improve the group from the previous generation and I met with about 10 different Shimano engineers to discuss the items.

At Shimano, there is a head project engineer and then a component engineer for each item. For instance, there’s a rear derailleur engineer who is different from the front derailleur engineer. There are disc brake engineers, hub engineers, etc. Shimano is an impressive company in the way they go about their product development. They’re very thorough and calculated and they do a ton of research. They came up with solutions for almost every one of my suggestions and implemented most of them.

We tested early prototypes here in Arizona on a test loop that I use to develop our suspension designs. The biggest changes based on my input were the return to offering rapid fire trigger style shifters and the shift stability which has seen continuous improvements in the last couple of years.

The Dual Control system levers moved too easily and needed to be more stable so that the brake levers did not rotate out of your hands while braking. That was addressed with the new versions. Also, Shimano’s previous ‘light-action’ designs were not working very well with modern suspension designs. In rocky conditions, you couldn’t feel the positive shift and the derailleur would ghost shift quite a bit. A more solid shift that could be felt through the levers and a derailleur that had a more fixed location instead of the B-tension spring design which allowed the derailleur to really jump and move around was a problem.

One of my suggestions was stiffening and limiting the range of the B-tension spring. I think that has been achieved in a very effective manner with the new Shadow derailleur.

It was fun to be a part of the process and I think sharing information between component manufacturers and frame builders in our sport is important to help us get were we want to go with our designs. It gives the component companies a good idea of the direction we see things going and it advances the technology and the sport as a whole when we work together on projects.

What’s your carbon footprint like?

I wear a size 47 (13) so my footprint is actually pretty big but I think our carbon footprint is on the small side. We have a reasonable sized facility and an environmentally conscious team of employees. We recycle almost every piece of packing material possible and are always pushing on our suppliers to reduce the size and waste in their packaging.

For a sport that is environmentally conscious by its pure nature, bike part manufacturers sure like to put a lot of parts in big fancy containers and boxes just so the box can get thrown away and the part can get put on a bike. There is definitely a better way. I don’t think any of us would stop buying cool bike parts if they didn’t come in some elaborate shiny box or foam filled plastic container. I’ll get off my soap box now and back to the question.

The majority of our employees live within just a few kilometers (a couple of miles) from our facility. We had a shower installed when we designed the building so employees could ride into work. Almost everyone here takes advantage of it and rides their bike into work from time to time. Several commute in on a daily basis. I ride in when possible as well. I actually rode in today. It’s both environmentally friendly and a major plus to live just down the street from where we work.

I know we can all be better, but I think as a company we do a pretty good job of keeping our environmental impact to a minimum.

What’s the best part about your job? Do you get decent saddle time?

Living close to work is great, but I would drive how ever far I needed to in order to do what I do. The best part of my job is seeing a new bike come together and riding it for the first time. I have always enjoyed that more then anything and it is even more gratifying with Pivot because we are really pushing the envelope on new ideas and technology. Everything is new from the ground up and that’s really cool.

I try to ride my bike 2-3 times a week for 1-2 hours at a time to help relieve some of the stress of running a new and growing bike company.

I love working with my wife. I met her through cycling. She can typically kick my ass on a road bike or any super long ride for that matter. We do almost every activity together and we are always at our best tackling challenges together. I couldn’t do it without her.


USS Pivot (AM-276)

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

  • 2 × 1,710 shp (1.3 MW) Cooper-Bessemer diesel engines
  • 2 × shafts.
  • 1 × 3"/50 caliber gun
  • 6 × Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
  • 4 × Bofors 40 mm gun
  • 1 × hedgehog
  • 4 × Depth charge projectors
  • 2 × Depth charge racks
  • 2 × Minesweeping paravanes

USS Pivot (AM-276), an Admirable-class minesweeper, and the first ship of the United States Navy named Pivot. She was built at the Gulf Shipbuilding Corporation, Chickasaw, Alabama and christened on 11 November 1943 by Mrs Clara L Prouty. Trials started on 12 July 1944 in the Gulf of Mexico and she worked up in Chesapeake Bay.

After shakedown, she operated with the Atlantic Fleet training and patrolling until sailing for the Pacific early in April 1945. She transited the Panama Canal on 10 April 1945 and after training in Hawaiian waters reached the war zone in time for mine sweeping operations around the Ryukyus after the Battle of Okinawa.

She supported Admiral Marc Mitscher's Fast Carrier Task Force during the strikes against Japan in July and operated in Korean waters after Japan's surrender, returning to Okinawa in October and resumed mine sweeping operations in the Ryukyus and receiving four battle stars for World War II.

Pivot was decommissioned 6 November 1946 at Subic Bay, Philippines, sold to Taiwan 27 August 1948 and renamed ROCS Yung Shou. On 1 July 1970, Yung Shou was decommissioned.


Definitions - pivot

Pivot Piv"ot (?) , n. [F. prob. akin to It. piva pipe, F. pipe . See Pipe .]
1. A fixed pin or short axis, on the end of which a wheel or other body turns.

2. The end of a shaft or arbor which rests and turns in a support as, the pivot of an arbor in a watch .

3. Hence, figuratively: A turning point or condition that on which important results depend as, the pivot of an enterprise .

4. (Mil.) The officer or soldier who simply turns in his place whike the company or line moves around him in wheeling -- called also pivot man .

Pivot bridge , a form of drawbridge in which one span, called the pivot span , turns about a central vertical axis. -- Pivot gun , a gun mounted on a pivot or revolving carriage, so as to turn in any direction. -- Pivot tooth (Dentistry) , an artificial crown attached to the root of a natural tooth by a pin or peg.

Pivot Piv"ot , v. t. [ imp. & p. p. Pivoted p. pr. & vb. n. Pivoting .] To place on a pivot. Clarke.


The process to get weather data into a pivot table is accomplished in a few simple steps:

  1. Create and Copy a web-based, weather query URL string using a site such as Visual Crossing’s weather query builder. https://www.visualcrossing.com/weather/weather-data-services
  2. In a new Excel Workbook choose “From Web” under the “Data” menu to create a Power Query and paste in the URL from the weather query builder above.
  3. Choose “Load to…” and “Pivot Table Report” to complete the final data load from the weather server into an Excel Pivot Table.

We will outline the 3 steps in detail below and in the matter of 5 minutes you can have a dynamic weather history query loading into an Excel Pivot Table.

1. Create a web-based weather query

The first step in the process is to build an historical weather query, and the easiest way to get started with historical weather is to use the Visual Crossing Weather web-based query builder. You can build your first query in only a minute by visiting https://www.visualcrossing.com/weather/weather-data-services. If you don’t already have a Visual Crossing Weather account you will want to sign up for one now. If you need help registering, please see our guide on How to Sign up With Weather Data Services.

Once logged in, you will see the weather query page which will start by asking you for information about your query location.

We will choose to ‘Add Manual’ and enter the location “Herndon, VA”.

Next we will be prompted to enter in the type of weather query you need. We will choose the “Historical Data” option and then select a dynamic date range for our query. In this example, we’ll fetch data for the last 30 days as a dynamic query so we don’t need to adjust the start and end dates as shown on this page. If you need only specific dates, then set the Start and End dates and skip over the next step. To create a dynamic range we must click on the “More Options” link.

Here we can adjust our query “Period” to use the last 30 days as a dynamic query from the date that the query runs. Every day the query is updated your data will be 30 days prior.

By clicking on “Request Weather Data” we will run the query and will get 30 rows of data as shown below for the period requested. We could use this data directly or download it as a CSV file. However, in this example we want to load weather data via Microsoft Excel’s Power Query capability and into a Pivot Table. So. we’ll generate the query URL string and copy it.

When we click on the “Query API” button near the top of the page, we will be taken to the API query page. That will allow us to copythe query URL String that we need to load our weather data. Simply copy the full URL as a GET request choose CSV as the output option. CSV is the fastest and simplest format to load data into Excel.

Then simply click on the “Copy full query” button and the entire query string will be loaded into your copy-and-paste buffer. We will paste this into our Excel Power Query later.

2. Create a Power Query in Excel

There are many ways to put data into our Pivot Table . Users can create tables, point to datasources and many other varieties to serve as the data for a Pivot Table. In this example we use Power Query because it is a live refreshable query which is perfect for our web query which fetches the last 30 days of history based on a dynamic end date of ‘yesterday’ and counts back 30 days for a start date. Open Excel, select the “Data” menu and select the link “From Web” to create a new PowerQuery.

When prompted, paste the URL of our Weather History Query into the entry box and click “OK”.

If you were successful you will now see the data pulled by the Power Query as results.

What we have created here is a Power Query datasource and connection to the weather server. At any time you wish to edit the query you can open the “Queries and Connections” window in the “Data” menu.

3. Load Data into a Pivot Table

To finish our query we need to tell Excel how to load it. Toggle open the “Load” button and choose “Load To…” this will offer us several options of how we want to load the data.

By Choosing “Pivot Table Report” Excel will create a Pivot Table for us automatically setting up our Power Query connection as the source. Click “OK” and an empty Pivot Table is created.

The data is now loaded into our Pivot Table but no data will show because the Pivot Table’s columns, rows and values have not been chosen. In this example we want the “Name” of our location to always appear, we want our dates to appear and finally we want a select set of weather variables to appear. By clicking on the fields we want in the “Pivot Table Fields” section we can create our table.

Simply begin by selecting fields you want to use. We have selected “Name” and our “Date time” field first. You should notice that based upon the data, Excel intelligently chooses those for the Rows. Next we add “Temperature”, “Precipitation” and “Wind Gust”. Excel then puts “Values” into the columns and the specific weather variables will show in the “Values” details section.

We can already see the power of the pivot table in action. All of our dates were sliced by months so that we can roll up months for easy viewing and total aggregation. Simply by toggling on the month value you can open/close the data. If you don’t want this feature you can remove “Months” from the rows and you will only see dates. Likewise you can slice by Year and other date/time values.

There is one task remaining. Notice how the Pivot Table assumes “Sum” as the aggregation for all data. This is not correct or useful for Wind Gust or Temperature but is perfect for Precipitation. We must adjust how the data is aggregated for totals. To do this click on the arrow toggle next to “Sum of Temperature” and change the aggregation to “Average”.

Note that the Name of the Value also changes to “Average of Temperature” for easy reading of what the total calculation method is for every variable. If you don’t want the name to be so long you can adjust it after selecting Average. Now repeat this operation for Wind Gust.

TIP: If your values have too many digits, simply click on the “Number Format” button and adjust to a number type and set the values of precision that you prefer.

We can now see the results of our work. At any time we can choose “Refresh All” from the “Data” menu to update our data dynamically.


If you find that your Pivot tables are not getting refreshed automatically whenever you make changes to the original dataset, it may be due to one of the following reasons:

  • You may be adding new data to rows outside the Pivot Table range
  • Your Pivot Table may be using filters
  • Your dataset may contain formulae that need to get re-calculated, like RANDOM, TODAY, etc.

Let us take a look at each of the above situations, why they happen, and how to solve them one by one.

Problem 1: Pivot Table does not refresh when adding a new row

The Pivot table works with data from a particular range of cells in your original worksheet. If the new row you are trying to add is not within the Pivot table’s range, it will not have any effect on the Pivot table.

And that obviously makes sense, since the new range does not fall into the range that the Pivot table was built to pull data from.

When initially creating your pivot table you can use a little foresight and add some extra rows for data you are likely to add in the future.

For example, if your data currently spans over 20 rows, you can create your pivot table with 1000 rows. The extra 980 rows can remain blank, and you can later fill them in with data as and when required.

Now, as long as your data is within the 1000 rows, the Pivot table will get automatically refreshed.

Note: There is a small disadvantage to this method. When you have blank rows in your original dataset, your Pivot table will also show one blank row, which might not look very good. To do away with this, you can add a filter to the table that filters out blank rows and displays only those rows that contain a value.

Problem: Your Pivot Table uses filters

If the Pivot table uses filters, your data is not going to get updated when original data values are changed. This is a limitation of the Google Sheets pivot table features.

If you have filters in your pivot table, the only solution is to remove them, make the changes to the original data, and then add the filters back. Here are the steps you need to follow:

  1. Click on the cross symbol next to all the fields under the ‘Filters’ category in your Pivot table editor.
  2. Make the changes you need to the original dataset.
  3. The changes should now get reflected in the pivot table.
  4. Once you are done making your edits, add the filters back using the ‘Add’ button under the ‘Filters’ category (in the Pivot table editor).

Problem: The Pivot table does not refresh when the original dataset contains functions like RANDOM, TODAY, etc.

The Pivot table does not work well with functions that require refreshing. So if your original data contains functions like RANDOM, TODAY, etc, then changes to the original data will not get updated to the pivot table.

Unfortunately, there is no solution to this problem other than simply avoiding the use of these kinds of functions.

These were three ways in which you can try to ensure that your Pivot table refreshes with changes in your data.

However, issues of Pivot tables not refreshing due to the reasons stated in this chapter are quite commonplace, and Google should look into fixing the issue as soon as possible.

But before they, do, we suggest you follow our guidelines to ensure that your Pivot tables get refreshed automatically, with minimum effort.


Watch the video: Introduction To PIVOT ANIMATOR: Part 1Learn The Basic