Porsche Typ 102
The Porsche Typ 102 was a version of the Porsche Tiger that would have used hydraulic transmission in place of the electric drives used on the Typ 101.
The Typ 101 or Tiger (P) used a petrol-electric system. A pair of Porsche engines powered a pair of generators, which in turn powered two electric motors, one for each of the drive sprockets. All of these components were carried in the engine compartment at the rear of the tank.
The Typ 102 used the same hull, superstructure and Porsche engines as the Typ 101, but replaced the generators and electric motors with a Voith hydraulic transmission, a system that had been under development since 1932. Each engine drove a hydraulic drive. The output from these was combined in a collector shaft, which drove the hydraulic gearbox and steering system. The driver had pneumatic control levers. This system was expected to produce the same top speed of 35km/ hr as the electric drive.
The original plan was to build half of the first 100 Tiger (P)s as the hydraulic Typ 102. By 23 March this has been reduce to 'less than half', and by 8 May to 90 Typ 101s and 10 Typ 102s. The problem appears to have been a lack of working hydraulic drives.
Production of the Typ 102 did actually get underway. By 23 March 1942 Krupp had delivered 14 Typ 101 and 14 Typ 102 hulls, with two more Typ 102s to follow. As the requirement for the Typ 102 began to be reduced, the existing hulls were converted to electric drive. On 13 May Nibelungenwerk reported that they had converted seven, seven had been returned to Krupp for the work and only one Typ 102 remained in its original configuration.
On 17 February 1943 Dr Porsche reported that a single Tiger P1 with hydraulic drive was being completed at Nibelungenwerk, and this vehicle was probably completed and tested. Porsche didn't abandon the idea of using hydraulic drives, and suggested three different versions on his version of the Tiger II, the VK 4502 (P)/ Typ 180.
Production: 1 (at most)
Length: 9.54m (with gun)
Hull Length: 6.60m
Hull Width: 3.38m
Crew: 5 (Commander, Gunner, Loader, Driver, Radio Operator)
Weight: 57 tons
Engine: Two 310hp Porsche Typ 101/3 10-cylinder petrol engines
Max Speed: 35 km/ hr
Armament: One 8.8cm KwK36 L/56, two 7.92mm MG34s
The Porsche Code
Every Porsche model has an official name and an in-house type number. Sometimes the two are identical, sometimes not – how can the system be understood?
Some dreams are difficult to capture in words because they have such long names. One example is the Porsche 356 A 1500 GS Carrera, which in 1955 conjured up a blissful smile on the faces of automobile enthusiasts all over the world. At that time, the top model from Zuffenhausen looked as if it came from a different world. But in technical terms too, the elegant sports car was absolutely fantastic: &ldquoLook, there goes the Porsche three hundred and fifty-six A one thousand, five&hellip&rdquo and it had already zoomed past with its top speed of 200 km/h.
Admittedly, names can be complicated. Often, however, there is a logical explanation for the model designations: the 1955 model, for example, originated on the basis of the Porsche 356 and was part of the refined A series. It impressed with its engine capacity of 1500 cm³ and was labelled as especially swift by the suffixes of GS (Grand Sport) and Carrera (Spanish for &ldquoracing&rdquo).
Confirmed Porsche devotees juggle skilfully with abbreviations and codes: 356 and 911, 964 and 993, GTS, GT and S, Carrera, Spyder, Speedster. They are all part of the Porsche cult &ndash and every cult has its own code. Yet for many an innocent car enthusiast, the Porsche typology is a rather confusing business. How can a car be called a 911 and a 991 at the same time? Is that a Boxster there or a 987? Or is it a 981? And what do the 4, the S or the Executive stand for on the current models? Here are two practical aids to help you crack the Porsche code.
One number for each order
You have to go back to the year 1931 to understand the beginnings of the in-house numbering method. Every order, every project of the newly founded engineering design office Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH of Ferdinand Porsche was given a consecutive number, the in-house type number. In the beginning it was the number 7: the design of a saloon car for the German car manufacturer Wanderer. Number 22 became the legendary Auto Union Grand Prix racing car and the Type 60 was the Volkswagen. The numbers therefore rose with each new order, with each engine designed, with each drawing for an axle, a gearbox or a tractor. On 8 June 1948, by which time the project numbers had climbed to 356, a novelty came about: for the first time an automobile was made under the official brand name of Porsche. The Porsche 356.
This not only marked the birth of a legendary brand, but also a legendary model and one with a memorable design. The 356 underwent further development with each new model year. Substantial advances in development were indicated by adding the letters A, B and C.
901 or 911?
The engineers in Zuffenhausen and Weissach then went on to retain this system. Order receipts were good &ndash test engines, naturally aspirated engines, water turbines, racing cars &ndash and the internal numbers were rising faster and faster. In some of the new sports car types, Porsche again used the internal plant code for the official model name, as was the case in 1953 with the Porsche 550 Spyder, the spirited mid-engine car.
Yet, it was precisely the successor to the 356 that led Porsche to abandon the customary typology. In view of possible future cooperation with the VW plant, the new Porsche was to be compatible with the number ranges used there. As the 900 numbers had not yet been allocated in Wolfsburg, the decision-makers at Zuffenhausen chose 901 for the six-cylinder version and 902 for a subsequent four-cylinder car. However, an unexpected problem arose: the company Peugeot stated that they had been using three-digit numbers with a zero in the middle since 1929 and therefore owned the legal rights to all similar number sequences in France. The 0 was therefore quickly replaced by a 1 &ndash the already existing typeface 1 simply had to be doubled for the brochures and type name on the rear of the vehicle. A legend was born, officially baptised with the name 911. In 1964, no one could have guessed that this 911 stopgap solution would one day become world-famous.
Expansion of the model range
Yet the 911 was not to remain the only model line within the Porsche company. The 914 marked the addition of a smaller, lighter mid-engine sports car, and over the years models such as the 924, 928 and 944 were to join their elder brother. They also received their internal number as model names &ndash using the first version in each case. By now, at the latest, the three-digit number starting with a 9 had established itself worldwide as synonymous with the reliable sporting character from Zuffenhausen.
Soon, though, the 900 numbers were running out and competing with each other. Nevertheless, for reasons of tradition, the engineers stuck to their system. In addition to the various street-legal models, pure racing cars also had to be allocated internal type numbers. One example is the legendary 917: unveiled at the Geneva International Motor Show in 1969, the extreme athlete secured overall victory in Le Mans one year later &ndash the first of many further racing successes in the first half of the 1970s under the 917 code.
Flexibility therefore became increasingly in demand when naming all the Porsche models. The 911 is a clear illustration of this: in the 1968 model year, the series received the internal designation of &ldquoA Series&rdquo for the first time. In 1969, the &ldquoB Series&rdquo followed, then in 1970 the &ldquoC Series&rdquo, up until the substantially redesigned &ldquoG Series&rdquo, which was presented in 1973. However, special models within the series also received their own type number from time to time, as was the case with the internal Type 930, called the 911 Turbo or the Type 954 (911 SC/RS).
In 1988, a major break occurred in the 911 history with the introduction of the completely redesigned 964 model series. The 993 followed in 1993. Then the 996, 997 and, in the current model, we return to the 991. Between the internal numbers of the 911, there are still further models to be found, with examples being the Carrera GT (internal 980), the Boxster (986 first generation, 987 second, 981 third) and the Cayenne (955). The tradition of the three-digit type numbers is being maintained &ndash albeit with a certain degree of creative freedom.
In addition to the official designations and the in-house type numbers, the Porsche employees also give some models affectionate nicknames: one model of the 356, for example, was known as the &ldquoDame&rdquo (=Lady), the 917/20 version of the Le Mans racing car is remembered as the &ldquoSau&rdquo (=Pink Pig). But that is another story entirely.
Apart from the official model names, there are also various suffixes to describe the numerous different model versions. Below you will find an overview.
An artificial name used since 1993 and derived from Boxer (engine) and roadster
Carrera (e.g. 911 Carrera)
Originally, &ldquoCarrera&rdquo was the name of the Type 547 four-camshaft engine designed by Dr Ernst Fuhrmann. Porsche later used this suffix for the most powerful engine versions, such as the 356 A 1500 GS Carrera or the 911 Carrera RS 2.7. However, Carrera has almost become established as a synonym for the 911 model series. The name comes from the Carrera Panamericana, a Mexican endurance race in which Porsche secured major successes with the 550 Spyder.
E-Hybrid (e.g. Cayenne S E-Hybrid)
Apart from the combustion engine, the E-Hybrid models also have an electric motor on board, which provides more thrust while simultaneously emitting less CO2.
Executive (e.g. Panamera 4S Executive)
The Executive models of the Panamera have a body extended by 15 cm, which primarily benefits the passengers sitting in the rear.
GTS (e.g. Cayman GTS)
GTS stands for Gran Turismo Sport and is originally a homologation class from motor racing. The 904 Carrera GTS received this epithet for the first time in 1963. In 1991, the 928 GTS revived the tradition. The GTS suffix is currently used to designate the especially sporty and exclusive models of a Porsche model series.
RS (e.g. 911 Carrera RS 2.7, model year 1972)
The RS (stands for RennSport[=racing sport]) and is a street-legal model that has been derived from the motor racing version. The designation is, however, also used for particularly sporty models, e.g. the 911 RS America.
RSR (e.g. 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 model year 1973)
The RennSport Rennwagen (RSR) [literally: racing sport racing car] is a purely competition version and is not street legal.
S (e.g. 928 S, model year 1979 Macan S)
S for &ldquoSuper&rdquo or &ldquoSport&rdquo: a version with a more powerful engine. Today the S consistently stands for &ldquoSport&rdquo and, in addition to the extra-sporty engine, additionally includes enhancements to the equipment compared with the basic model.
Spyder (918 Spyder)
The designation originally comes from the coach-making term for lightweight, open carriages for two people. In a similar way to the term Roadster, Spyder at Porsche designates open mid-engine sports cars. The 918 already has a legendary predecessor in the 550 Spyder from 1953.
Targa (e.g. 911 Targa 4)
The 911 Targa is an open version of the 911, characterised by its distinctive roll-over protection bar and its fixed roof section. The name comes from the legendary Sicilian road race Targa Florio and means &ldquoplate&rdquo in English.
Turbo (e.g. Cayenne Turbo)
These models have an engine with exhaust gas turbocharger, which produces a powerful boost in performance. All Porsche models have had an exhaust gas turbocharger since 2015.
4 (e.g. 911 Carrera 4)
Models with all-wheel drive
CS (968 CS, model year 1992)
Available from 1992, the Club Sport (CS) version of the 968 had the same engine but had undergone streamlining for extra sporting character: without window lifts, rear seating and air conditioning, it may have been less comfortable but was significantly lighter and therefore faster than the 968.
GT (e.g. 924 Carrera GT, model year 1980)
Similar to GTS, the suffix Gran Turismo (GT) signifies a sportier version of the basic model the designation has its origins in motor sport since it was possible to homologate vehicles for the GT class. Used for the first time in 1955 with the 356 A 1500 GS Carrera GT, Porsche returned to the designation in 1989 for the 928 GT.
GT-Cup (e.g. 911 GT3 Cup, model year 1998)
Near-production racing version not street legal, used for example in the Porsche Carrera Cup.
L (911 L, model year 1967)
L for &ldquoLuxury&rdquo: the third version of the original 911 received this suffix in 1967.
SC (.e.g. 356 C 1600 SC, model year 1963)
Introduced in the model year 1964, the 95 hp 356 SC (Super C) was intended to mark the end of the series. In a similar way to this, the 911 SC (Super Carrera) was introduced in 1977, and was initially also intended to be the last 911 model. However, the series ended up being continued with the 911 Carrera 3.2.
Speedster (e.g. 356 Speedster model year 1954)
In the Speedster models, the windscreen was significantly lower when compared with the basic model, which gave the car a more streamlined silhouette. In return, the driver had to sacrifice comfort in the equipment provided.
Although it was also available as a Targa version, the T in the 911 T from 1967 stood for &ldquoTouring&rdquo &ndash and hence for a less expensive entry-level version of the classic vehicle with a weaker engine.
911 Carrera: Combined fuel consumption: 8.3-7.4 l/100 km CO2 emissions 190-169 g/km
Cayenne S E-Hybrid: Combined fuel consumption: 3,4 l/100 km CO2 emissions: 79 g/km Electricity consumption: 20.8 kWh/100 km
Panamera 4S Executive: Combined fuel consumption: 9,0 l/100 km CO2 emissions: 210 g/km
Cayman GTS: Combined fuel consumption: 9,0 &ndash 8,2 l/100 km CO2 emissions: 211 &ndash 190 g/km
Macan S: Combined fuel consumption: 9,0 &ndash 8,7 l/100 km CO2 emissions: 212 &ndash 204 g/km
911 Targa 4: Combined fuel consumption: 9,5 &ndash 8,7 l/100 km CO2 emissions: 223 &ndash 204 g/km
Cayenne Turbo: Combined fuel consumption: 11,5 &ndash 11,2 l/100 km CO2 emissions: 267 - 261 g/km
911 Carrera 4: Combined fuel consumption: 9,3 &ndash 8,6 l/100 km CO2-emissions: 218 &ndash 200 g/km
An Idiot's Guide To Understanding The Complicated Porsche 911 Range
One of the greatest mysteries in the world of motoring is the Porsche 911 range. Throughout the years there have been so many variants and special editions, that the history and line-up of this legendary sports car can seem baffling at a glance. Fear not, though - we’ve put together an idiot’s guide to make sense of the Porsche madness.
First, we’re going to look at designations. The words/letters/numbers that come after ‘911’ could determine whether you’re looking at a relatively easy-going all-wheel drive model that develops 385bhp versus a 720bhp, rear-drive monster.
The Carrera name - taken from the famous Carrera Panamericana road race - has been used throughout the 911’s history, but more recently it’s come to refer to the ‘standard’ 911s. The current 911 Carrera is the base-spec 911, powered by a 385bhp 3.0-litre twin-turbo flat-six. At the time of writing, it’s only available with an eight-speed ‘PDK’ dual-clutch automatic gearbox.
As with other cars from Porsche (like the Boxster and Cayman), strapping an ‘S’ to the name denotes a more powerful version. Once upon a time, the extra poke was provided via an increase in displacement, but since the arrival of the 991.2, it’s all about cranking up the turbocharger boost pressure.
For the 992, the S enjoys a huge power advantage relative to the Carrera - it produces 444bhp. The Carrera S also has the no-cost option of a seven-speed manual gearbox.
Put a 4 on the name after Carrera and you get four-wheel drive. Currently, it’s also available on S models as the Carrera 4S. Turbo models are also four-wheel drive but don’t get a ‘4’ in the name. All-wheel drive Carrera models used to be wider than their rear-driven siblings, but since the arrival of the 992, all models share the same shell.
A refreshingly easy one, this: it’s a 911 with a folding fabric roof. Currently, the 911 Cabriolet is available as a Carrera, Carrera S, Carrera 4, Carrera 4S, Turbo and Turbo S.
For those who like alfresco motoring but don’t want a full-on convertible, there’s the Targa. Historically available with a removable roof panel, modern versions have a clever folding mechanism. The Targa was the final core member of the 992 to be revealed, and as with the last one, it’s only available with all-wheel drive.
The GTS (Gran Turismo Sport) badge can be traced all the way back to the 904 of the 1960s, which ended up being referred to as the Carrera GTS to avoid irking Peugeot. These days, Porsche uses it across multiple models.
The strategy almost always involved taking an S-badged car and giving it some styling tweaks, a power-boost and standard-fit equipment like PASM (Porsche Active Suspension Management). Porsche has deviated from this strategy with the likes of the 718 Cayman, 718 Boxster and Panamera GTS models, which enjoy a greater degree of differentiation from their S siblings thanks to the fitting of new engines. The 718s, for instance, have ditched the 2.5-litre flat-four turbo for the Cayman GT4/Boxster Spyder N/A six.
We’re not expecting an engine swap for the eventual 992 GTS, however. It’ll almost certainly use a slightly more powerful version of the 444bhp Carrera S turbo six, with the usual GTS enhancements. As with the 991 GTS, the model will be available as a coupe, Cabriolet or Targa, in rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive, and with either a seven-speed manual or eight-speed automatic PDK gearbox. Choice is king!
A name first used in 1968, the Carrera T (Touring) was reintroduced for the 991.2. It was based on a standard Carrera but included various pieces of equipment normally reserved for the Carrera S. It was available only with a manual gearbox and included various light-weighting measures including thinner rear and side glass, less sound-proofing and an infotainment system delete. It’s unclear if Porsche will bring this designation back for the 992 generation, but if it does, we’d expect it to happen much later in the car’s life.
This is where the waters muddy a little. The meaning of the ‘Turbo’ badge used to be obvious - it referred to, erm, the one with the turbo. Or turbos. However, the whole Carrera range is now turbocharged, and confusing matters further, the fully electric Taycan has Turbo and Turbo S derivatives.
However, the 911 Turbo is still easily identifiable - it’s the widebody, all-wheel drive one that’s significantly faster than the rest of the range. Plus, unlike the turbocharged Carrera models, which try their best to behave like they’re still powered by N/A engines, the boosty Turbo has no interest in pretending it isn’t packing a pair of snails.
The 992 Turbo S (a standard Turbo will be joining the range soon) develops 641bhp and will do 0-62mph in 2.7 seconds according to Porsche’s (usually conservative) figures.
The GT2 recipe is simple. Take the engine from a 911 Turbo, leave behind the all-wheel drive system, and up the track focus. GT2s were made from the 993 generation through to the 997, with the 997 also having the option of an even more focused, even more powerful GT2 RS.
For the 991, there was no base GT2 model - high-power, rear-drive turbo heroics were available only via the hardcore GT2 RS (pictured). We’re expecting the same thing to happen for the 992 generation, via a model which will comfortably trump the 710bhp output of its predecessor.
The GT3 badge first appeared on the 996 generation 911. Sharing little with the ‘lesser’ Carrera models, GT3s are heavily track-focused, with lower, stiffer suspension, beefier brakes, and things like sound deadening and rear seats binned to reduce weight. The GT3 has been made more distinct from the Carrera range than ever, due to the retention of a naturally-aspirated engine.
For the 991.2, the GT3 received a lightly fettled version of Porsche’s 4.0-litre motorsport engine, which is also found in the 911 Cup. Porsche recently updated the engine with gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) for the Speedster (more on that later) to comply with emissions regulations for the next few years, meaning it’s been possible for the 992 GT3 (above) to retain an N/A six. Praise be!
It deviates from the long-standing tradition of 911s using a MacPherson strut front suspension setup, instead opting for the technically superior double wishbone arrangement.
Short for RennSport (which translates as ‘racing sport’), the RS badge first appeared in 1973 on the 911 Classic as the Carrera RS. This lightweight car had revised suspension and bigger brakes, and has become one of the most collectable 911s ever.
The RS badge appeared again on the 996 generation 911 to make the 911 GT3 RS: an even more track-focused version of the GT3. For the 996 version, weight was further reduced through the use of polycarbonate windows (among other things) and the suspension and engine uprated. Carbon-ceramic brakes were also dropped in at each corner.
And so it went with the following 997 and 991 GT3 RS models. The tactic changed slightly for the 991.2 GT3 RS, however, which shares its 4.0-litre 911 Cup-derived engine with the standard GT3, albeit with a slight increase in power. We’d expect this setup to be retained when the 992 GT3 and GT3 RS arrive.
With roots that go back to the 356, ‘Speedster’ is perhaps the ultimate historical name that Porsche has dug out of its back-catalogue. Various 911s have carried it, but for the 991.2 version, Stuttgart went all out. It built a bespoke shell by joining the front end of a GT3 with the rear of a Carrera 4 and then transplanted a manual GT3’s engine and chassis parts. The finishing touch was a lightweight, mechanical-folding roof.
It was certainly an improvement on the 997 Speedster, which was merely a buttressed GTS with a fancy roof made by Porsche exclusive. The production numbers were also dramatically increased - while the 997 was limited to 356 units (see what they did there?), Porsche sold 1948 (again, see what they did there?) 991.2 Speedsters. Will there be a 992 version? We’ll have to wait and see, but if Porsche goes down that retro-inspired road, it’ll probably be - like the 991.2 - a late, run-out special.
With eight different generations spanning multiple decades, the history of the 911 is as convoluted as the current line-up. Let us run you through the models…
First generation (1963-1972)
It all started here. A very small number were made early on as the ‘902,’ before Peugeot kicked up a stink about using a ‘0’ in the middle of the name, forcing Porsche to change the name to ‘911.’ All were powered by flat-sixes, with displacement growing from 2.0 litres to 2.5.
Although earlier 911s were continually updated and internally given lettered ‘series’ designations, the car is considered to have entered its second-generation with the arrival of the G-series. This is when impact bumpers were added, and when the displacement of the flat-six was increased to 2.7 litres. The very last ‘K series’ second-gen cars used 3.2-litre flat-sixes. This generation also saw the introduction of the Turbo (type 930).
Major revisions to the original 911 led to a new internal designation: 964. The same basic shape was still there, but 85 per cent of the car was new. Its plastic bumpers gave it a very different look, while technology like ABS and power steering were present for the first time in a 911. Another notable 911 first was the electronically-raising spoiler, popping up at 50mph. Engines were still air-cooled, most being 3.6-litre, with a 3.3-litre in the Turbo (switching to a 3.6 for 1993) and 3.75-litre in the RS and RSR.
The last of the air-cooled cars, the 993 is the ultimate 911 generation for many. As with the 964, it still had that recognisable 911 shape, but the new styling was the biggest departure yet for the then 30-year-old sports car. The brakes and suspension were dramatically improved over the 964, while at the rear either a 3.6-litre or 3.8-litre engine was available.
This was the big one. Arriving in 1998, the 996 was all-new. No major component from the 993 was carried over, and most importantly, the brand-new flat-six engine was (shock horror) water-cooled. The styling was a radical change, too. Again, it has the same basic 911 shape, but it’s a much more curvaceous thing, while the round headlights were dropped in favour of the unpopular ‘fried egg’ designs. Early 996 Carreras had a 3.4-litre engine, while later models had a 3.6.
After the big changes brought about by the 996, the 997 marked a return to the ‘evolution not revolution’ way of 911 progress. Other than the unloved 996 headlights being binned in favour of the classic round design, there wasn’t much going on visually to tell it apart from its predecessor. Everything was tweaked and improved, though. Engine displacement ranged from 3.6-litre to 3.8-litres.
Again, Porsche didn’t tamper with the styling all that much for the 991. However, it did get a lot wider. There was also an increase in wheelbase, moving the rear wheels further back in relation to the engine, aiding weight distribution. Despite the increase in size, weight was actually reduced compared to the 997.
It was available with a 3.4-litre or 3.8-litre naturally-aspirated flat-six depending on if you went for a Carrera or Carrera S, but all that changed with the arrival of the 991.2, which ditched the atmospheric engines for a 3.0-litre twin-turbo engine with two different available outputs.
992 (2019 - present)
The 911 received another growth spurt when the 992 arrived, increasing by 45mm in width across the front axle and gaining staggered 20-inch front/21-inch rear wheels. There’s only one shell available, with the narrow-body 911 now ditched.
Another notable change is the shift from a seven-speed automatic PDK gearbox to a newer eight-speed unit, which readies the 992 for any future hybrid powertrains. The new transmission plus the growth spurt and the addition of GPFs have led to an increase in weight.
The 3.0-litre twin-turbo flat-six is best considered an evolution of the 991.2’s, but it’s even more powerful and slightly more responsive. Sounds better, too.
So, now we’ve filled your head with 911 knowledge, which version will it be for you?
* Data determined in accordance with the measurement method required by law. Since 1 September 2017 certain new cars have been type approved in accordance with the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), a more realistic test procedure to measure fuel/electricity consumption and CO₂ emissions. As of 1 September 2018 the WLTP replaced the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Due to the more realistic test conditions, the fuel/electricity consumption and CO₂ emission values determined in accordance with the WLTP will, in many cases, be higher than those determined in accordance with the NEDC. This may lead to corresponding changes in vehicle taxation from 1 September 2018. You can find more information on the difference between WLTP and NEDC at www.porsche.com/wltp.
Currently, we are still obliged to provide the NEDC values, regardless of the type approval process used. The additional reporting of the WLTP values is voluntary until their obligatory use. As far as new cars (which are type approved in accordance with the WLTP) are concerned, the NEDC values will, therefore, be derived from the WLTP values during the transition period. To the extent that NEDC values are given as ranges, these do not relate to a single, individual car and do not constitute part of the offer. They are intended solely as a means of comparing different types of vehicle. Extra features and accessories (attachments, tyre formats, etc.) can change relevant vehicle parameters such as weight, rolling resistance and aerodynamics and, in addition to weather and traffic conditions, as well as individual handling, can affect the fuel/electricity consumption, CO₂ emissions and performance values of a car.
** Important information about the all-electric models can be found here.
Luxury Lineage: A Brief History of the Volkswagen Beetle
After 80 years, the long and winding road is coming to the end for the Beetle. Volkswagen announced this week that it will end production of the iconic car in 2019.
The Beetle was commissioned in the 1930s by Adolf Hitler as the "people's car" (or volks wagen in German). Designed by Ferdinand Porsche, the curvy car was affordable, practical and reliable. Three decades later, the "Bug" (as it was affectionately known) became a symbol of the 1960s and the "small is beautiful" ethos.
Germany stopped producing Beetles in the late 1970s, but in 1998 Volkswagen rolled out the New Beetle, which was meant to be a visual flashback to the original Type 1 design but was essentially a VW Golf. Another variation was introduced in 2012, but sales have been steadily declining—down to around 15,000 last year from some 43,000 in 2013—so now the Bug will be squashed.
To pay tribute to the car that helped make Volkswagen the world's largest automaker, VW will release two last models, the Final Edition SE and the Final Edition SEL. Until then, here's a look back at Beetle-mania.
A 1939 Volkswagen Type 1 convertible, with Ferdinand Porsche in the back seat.
Photo by Library of Congress/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images
In an effort to produce an affordable car for German workers, Adolf Hitler had commissioned engineer Ferdinand Porsche to design a simple, economical vehicle for the people. The Type 1 (as it was known) had a rear, air-cooled engine and borrowed design elements from an earlier Porsche car (the Type 12 he built for Zündapp) and several models from the Czechoslovakia automaker Tatra. In May, Hitler laid the cornerstone of the Volkswagen factory in Wolfsburg, Germany. Civilian production was almost immediately stopped because of World War II, but some cars were built for military officers. Hitler was given the first convertible.
A Beetle on streets of Germany in the 1940s.
Photo by Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images
Following the end of the war, the factory was put under British control. By the end of 1946, more than 10,000 cars were manufactured. A decade later, one million had been sold.
A 1960 version of DDB's "Think small" ad.
Under the supervision of William Bernbach of the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB), copywriters Julian Koenig and Helmut Krone created the now legendary "Think small" ad for Volkswagen with a tiny Beetle in a plane of white space. "Maybe we got so big because we thought small," the ad touted. Forty years later, Ad Age named it the best advertising campaign of the 20th century.
A 1963 Love Bug that starred in 'Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo.'
The Type 1 was officially given the name "Beetle" (from "der Käfer," German for beetle, which was used in brochures). That year, Disney released the first of six movies featuring Herbie the Love Bug, an anthropomorphic 1963 Beetle with a racing-style number 53 on the hood. In 2018, one of the cars used in the 1977 movie Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo and 1982's Herbie Goes Bananas set a record for a Beetle at auction, selling at Barrett-Jackson for $128,700.
The 1972 Volkswagen Super Beetle.
Volkswagen introduced a premium model known as the Super Beetle. The car had a new front suspension and more trunk space—under the hood. The next year, on February 17, 1972, Beetle No. 15,007,034 rolled off the assembly line, surpassing the record held by the Ford Model T for four decades as the best-selling car in the world.
The New Beetle behaves at the premiere of 'Austin Powers: the Spy Who Shagged Me'
Photo by Jody Cortes/Sygma/Sygma via Getty Images
Meet the New Beetle. After 60 years, VW gave the car its first major update with lines that recalled the Type 1 on what was basically a Volkswagen Golf platform. The car came with a 115-hp 2.0-liter four-cylinder engine, and in a nod to its flower-power roots, the dashboard had a small vase. The following year, Mike Myers drove a groovy version in Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me known as "The Shag Mobile."
The 2019 Beetle Convertible Final Edition Large
With sales having declined since 2013, Volkswagen announced that the Beetle had reached the end of the line. There will be two last models, the Final Edition SE (which starts at $25,995) and the Final Edition SEL (beginning at $29,995)—and both are available as convertibles. So is it really the last ride for the beloved Bug? As Hinrich J. Woebcken, president and CEO of Volkswagen Group of America, said in his announcement, "Never say never."
I am the editor of ForbesLife (né Forbes FYI), a luxury lifestyle publication covering fashion, travel, cars, watches, and other indulgences. (Which means that I can tie
I am the editor of ForbesLife (né Forbes FYI), a luxury lifestyle publication covering fashion, travel, cars, watches, and other indulgences. (Which means that I can tie a bow tie and pronounce "Laphroaig.") I have been an editor at Esquire, Vogue, and some other magazines (Mirabella and Premiere) that have gone on to that big newsstand in the sky. I've also been a book editor at ESPN and spent the last few years working digitally for The Daily Beast and Byliner. Follow me on Twitter: @Mister_Solomon
Sotheby's to auction 'world's first Porsche' for $20 million, but the automaker says it's not a Porsche
This weekend, a sleek, vintage car that's being called "the world's first Porsche" heads to the auction block with an estimated price tag of over $20 million.
There is just one problem: Porsche says the 1939 Porsche Type 64 isn't the first Porsche ever made. To purists, it may not even be a Porsche.
"We would like to be very clear, it's not the first Porsche," Frank Jung, head of the historical archives for Porsche, told CNBC. He said the world's first Porsche, from 1948, is sitting on display at the Porsche Museum in Stuttgart, Germany.
The flood of recent headlines about the car — from Top Gear, The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times — herald it as "the first Porsche" with "first" sometimes in quotation marks. Being able to own the world's first Porsche is the dream of countless wealthy Porsche collectors and is presumably a big part of its appeal and value when it rolls over the RM Sotheby's auction block at Pebble Beach car week in Monterey, California, on Saturday.
RM Sotheby's is specific in its sales language, saying the car is "the oldest car to wear the Porsche badge." Its sales catalog quotes Porsche expert Andy Prill saying "This is the most historically significant of all Porsche cars and it is simply incredible to find the oldest Porsche in original condition."
The confusion around the Type 64 stems from its complex history. Ferdinand Porsche, a relentless and visionary auto engineer who was also a member of the Nazi Party, started making cars in 1931.
He developed the car, known as the KdF-Wagen or People's car, that later became the Volkswagen Beetle. In 1939, as part of Hitler's propaganda efforts, a road race was planned between Berlin and Rome, and Ferdinand Porsche created a racing version of the KdF-Wagen for the rally for the Nazi Party.
With its streamlined, lightweight alloy body and more than 2,000 rivets, the car called the Type 64 borrowed aircraft technology to turn the KdF-Wagen's sub-40-horsepower engine into a racing machine well ahead of its time.
The outbreak of World War II scuttled the race plans. Ferdinand's son, Ferry Porsche, had three Type 64s built for experimentation. Only one survived the war, which Ferry drove as his personal car.
Ferry Porsche started his eponymous car company in 1948 with the debut of the 356, the roadster that launched the brand and the global auto empire that followed. Porsche unveiled the 356 on a racetrack in Innsbruck, and had the Type 64 follow along as the chase car. Sometime before the demonstration, Porsche added the crudely applied "Porsche" letters to the hood of the Type 64.
Jung says the 356 driven at Innsbruck that day, known as No. 1, is the true first Porsche. It remains at the company's museum and Porsche is proud that it is one of the few car companies that retains its first car ever built.
Because the Porsche lettering was only added to the Type 64 later, the one being auctioned Saturday is not a true Porsche, Jung said.
"It was to show where the Porsche brand comes from," he said, adding that the Type 64 has some of the same design DNA as the 356. "It was more or less for marketing purposes."
The true description of the Type 64, he said, is a "race version of a pre-Volkswagen."
He concedes that the Type 64 is a "very important piece of history for Porsche." RM Sotheby's said it stands by its catalog language and that the Type 64 is important in the development of Porsche and the lives of Ferdinand and Ferry Porsche.
Jung said Porsche met with RM Sotheby's before the sale was announced to make its position clear and to make sure RM Sotheby's didn't use any of the company's archival photos. But he stressed that Porsche will not be among the bidders vying for the car Saturday.
Saturday's sale price will determine whether collectors view the Type 64 as the world's first Porsche or a historically interesting pre-Volkswagen racer.
Listed below is a chart of the various versions that Porsche produced
160001 - 162462 (up to 7/26/1965),
163001 - 165214 (4 cyl engine)
200000 - 200402 (6 cyl engine)
220001 - 221721 (up to 7/26/1965)
234001 - 238942 (4 cyl engine)
130001 - 131571 (6 cyl engine)
HA 0000001 - HA 0014826 (MY 1970),
HA 0014827 - HA 0030093 (MY 1971),
HA 0030094 - HA 0053072 (MY 1972)
HA 0053072 - HA 0056362 (MY 1973),
HA 01102 - HA 31122 (MY 1973),
HA 01013 - HA 31073 (MY 1973),
HA 01083 - HA 31074 (MY 1974),
Those transmission that came with what is known as the "Simplified" differential are listed with an "S" after the final drive ratio in the charts above.
ABOUT HERITAGE PARTS CENTER
RUN BY ENTHUSIASTS, FOR ENTHUSIASTS
Welcome to Heritage Parts Center. The specialist Volkswagen and Porsche car parts supplier that is run by enthusiasts for enthusiasts.
Established in 1986, we have a team of over 80, many who have worked with us for more than ten years and live and breathe the car enthusiast lifestyle.
When it comes to selling and producing our parts the benchmark is very clear: Would we be happy using and fitting these parts ourselves, to our cars? Spending our spare time maintaining, modifying and restoring VW and Porsche vehicles we understand what is required of a part with regards to quality and aesthetics, and we use this knowledge to ensure we provide our customers with the very best parts available to help with their projects.
Located on the South Coast of England, we are perfectly placed to offer parts for VW and Porsche vehicles from manufacturers in the UK, Europe and Asia as well as supplying components from select sources in USA and South American too. With a huge range covering air and watercooled VW as well as Porsche vehicle parts too, we are a one stop shop for your specialist parts requirements. We have a network of trusted shipping partners that help us deliver our services to enthusiasts all around the world. We send our products fast and fully insured to our customers, with them often arriving quicker than &lsquocoast to coast&rsquo internal shipments.
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Aircooled VW exhaust systems, watercooled VW exhaust systems, & Porsche exhaust systems, all here!
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Standard VW carburettor parts, performance VW carburettor kits, as well as a huge range of air filters & fitting parts.
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Standard Volkswagen engine parts & performance Volkswagen engine spares, all in our engine shop.
Porsche and VW: What the Hell Happened?
With car guy Ferdinand Piëch back in charge, the future of Porsche will differ dramatically from Wiedeking's profit-above-all-else vision. The focus will be to burnish Porsche's reputation as the world's leading sports car manufacturer.
The first of Wiedeking's babies to be axed will be the Cayenne II and the Panamera, although the process will take some time. Unfortunately, the Panamera is brand-new and needs to go full life-cycle, from 2010 to 2017. The Cayenne will be replaced next year and is also going to be with us for seven more years. A source from within VW HQ explains: "We pulled the plug too late. There should not be a new VW Touareg or a new Audi Q7, and there should be no more Cayenne. These vehicles are too big, too heavy, too thirsty. They damage the brands, send out the wrong message, and are no longer socially acceptable. They will have to bite the dust after the next generation. The Audi Q5 and VW Tiguan are the right size and the right concept. That's why it would make sense to derive the next Cayenne from the next Q5."
And the Panamera? "The Panamera faces similar problems. We are considering letting Lamborghini use it for the Estoque, but midterm it also needs to go. We could replace it with a rebodied, high-performance derivative of the next Audi S7 or RS7 Sportback. Such a vehicle would be 650 pounds lighter and would feature a hybrid drivetrain. We could even derive a beautiful two-door coupe from this components set. Think of it as the modern 928."
A new supercar, along the lines of the Carrera GT, is considered a must-have. It may be developed in conjunction with Lamborghini and Bugatti to create enough volume for trend-setting technologies.
At the opposite end of the spectrum, a reincarnated 356 is important as well. At this point, it isn't clear whether the car will join the upcoming VW/Audi mid-engine coupe/roadster (previewed by the BlueSport show car) or be twinned with the Boxster.
Still another new car could be based on the Modular Sports Car Structure (MSS) being prepared for Bentley, Lamborghini, and Bugatti. MSS would clear the way for a more upmarket mid-engine sports car powered by a flat eight. The flat eight would be based on the six-cylinder boxer engine, in the same way the flat four is to be its downsized sibling.
If this game plan materializes, Porsche would add three new sports cars within the next six years.
What is a PDK transmission? Autoweek explains
If you've read about, shopped for or driven a Porsche in the past decade, you've probably heard of the brand's PDK dual-clutch transmission. PDK shifts faster than other types of transmissions, includes a launch control feature and, even better, doesn't need clutch replacements -- ever. But what exactly is PDK and how does it work?
The 2009 Porsche 911 was the first to offer a PDK transmission option.
PDK is an acronym for Porsche Doppel Kupplungs getriebe (strictly, Porsche-Doppelkupplungsgetriebe), which translates to Porsche double-clutch transmission. As the name suggests, it&rsquos Porsche&rsquos version of a dual-clutch transmission (DCT) and fundamentally operates in the same way as other DCTs on the market today.
A DCT is more similar to a manual transmission than a traditional automatic, but instead of one clutch engaging with a flywheel, two separate clutches work together. A PDK gearbox uses hydraulically actuated wet-clutch packs, one enveloped around the other. One clutch connects reverse, first, third, fifth and seventh gears, the other handles second, fourth and sixth. As opposed to a clutch pedal on the floor, an electronically controlled valve body actuates the correct clutch when it&rsquos needed. The PDK only engages one clutch at a time. However, because gear sets alternate between clutches, as one disengages the other can engage in one fluid motion.
The internal gears and clutch pack of a PDK transmission. Blue highlights which gears the clutch operates.
The internal gears and clutch pack of a PDK transmission. Green highlights which gears the clutch operates.
Think of a PDK like a seven-person Olympic relay race team. By the time one runner nears the end of his stint, another gets up to speed separately and is ready to begin, so the baton is effectively handed off instantly, with no loss in speed. And just like perfectly nourished and hydrated athletes, the oil-soaked wet-clutches don&rsquot overheat or wear out under pressure. That&rsquos how Porsche avoids damaging parts with launch control. Rev the engine to a high-power point and slip the clutches to get maximum torque to the wheels without spinning them. It&rsquos stunningly effective.
As do so many automotive innovations, PDK got its start in racing because its faster shifts meant quicker lap times. Fuel efficiency gains were coincidental, but also consequential because over time the design started replacing traditional automatic and manual transmissions in Porsche cars, even the driver-focused GT3.
Objectively, you can&rsquot argue with PDKs. But enthusiasts want more than the objective. So we fought the trend and, in the case of the GT3 at least, won. Why? As Lingeman said in his 911 GT3 review, &ldquo&hellip even with my penchant for lap times, I&rsquod still pick the zero-dollar 6MT option. It. Just. Feels. Right.&rdquo
Shift This: A History of Porsche&rsquos Sportomatic, Tiptronic, and PDK Transmissions
As a company, Porsche consistently finds itself caught in a tug-of-war between honoring its heritage and placing its sports cars at the bleeding edge of progress. Take the 911: Its engine is still in the wrong place and a Porschephile from the &rsquo70s, transported directly to 2013, could still recognize today&rsquos model as a neunelf at a single glance. Yet Porsche has continued to innovate and transform its icon in other areas, and through the 911&rsquos many iterations the car has become more luxurious, safer, more powerful, better handling. But alongside exorcising the 911&rsquos dynamic demons, offering leather-lined cup holders, and essentially perfecting the flat-six engine, Porsche&rsquos march of progress is also made clear through its automatic-transmission developments.
Faced with trying to satisfy both self-shifting die-hards and those disinterested in learning how to heel-and-toe&mdashwith a thirst for motorsports success also key&mdashPorsche&rsquos preferred solution has been the semi-automatic transmission, or what many today refer to as an automated manual or &ldquomanumatic.&rdquo Porsche&rsquos first such transmission, Sportomatic, found fans among racers and left-foot-braking aficionados. Later, the dual-clutch PDK hit the racetrack long before reaching a production car. Tiptronic, Porsche&rsquos other manumatic effort, was implemented largely as a stopgap measure between the demise of Sportomatic and volume production of PDK. All three transmissions pushed technical boundaries, and brought lazy-driving ease to generations of 911 drivers. Read on for a brief history of each gearbox, which we offer as part of our celebration of the 911&rsquos 50th anniversary.
With its quintessentially space-age name, Sportomatic provided a nifty answer to a question seemingly no one was asking in the mid-1960s. It was an era when sports cars had shift-for-yourself transmissions&mdashend of story&mdashbut the Germans saw a need to help in those times when even the hardest-core sports-car enthusiast grew weary of clutching in and out through heavy traffic.
Curiously, Porsche described Sportomatic as an &ldquoautomatic&rdquo transmission, even though it had no fully automatic setting. A modified four-speed 911 gearbox, Sportomatic was essentially a manual with a vacuum-operated single-disc dry clutch. A torque converter replaced the flywheel and existed both to smooth the transmission&rsquos electro-mechanical shifts and to allow the car to remain stationary with the clutch engaged. When a driver grabbed the shift lever, the clutch would disengage, re-engaging as soon as one&rsquos hand was removed from the stick. To change gears, the driver needed only to move the lever to the desired gate and let go of the knob.
The &ldquogears&rdquo were labeled L, D, D3, and D4, and although Porsche suggested using L only for steep grades, it was, essentially, first gear. (We found in a 1971 test that using L helped acceleration.) Gears D, D3, and D4 were really the transmission&rsquos second, third, and fourth speeds, and there was even an automatic-like &ldquopark&rdquo setting enabled by a pawl that both engaged and locked a countershaft gear.
Sportomatic-equipped 911s were, as you might expect, somewhat quirky: As on other early 911s, there was a secondary hand throttle between the front seats to adjust the engine&rsquos idle speed to prevent random stalls, and we found in our contemporary test that you could easily overrev the engine by accidentally touching the shift lever or not lifting from the throttle during an intentional shift event. An innovative yet flawed first step, Sportomatic&rsquos last gasp wasn&rsquot heard until 1980. The technology received only one update along the way, in 1975, when Porsche stripped it of one forward gear due to the torquier nature of the 911&rsquos more-flexible 2.7-liter flat-six.